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Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
Lesson 5   Paragraphs
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Lesson 5 Paragraphs

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  • 1. Lesson Five Paragraphs
  • 2. www.slideshare.net/msbirkbeck
  • 3. www.slideshare.net/msbirkbeck
  • 4. Radio Show Thursday at 12:30 Lecture Series
  • 5. A Brief History <ul><li>Latin: Paragraphus </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;A horizontal stroke drawn below the beginning of a line in which a break in sense occurs.&quot; </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>English: Pilcrow </li></ul>A Brief History
  • 7. <ul><li>Modern English: Paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>“ A unit of writing focused on a single idea or topic.” </li></ul>A Brief History
  • 8. <ul><li>“… an effective paragraph has three fundamental features: a central idea, supporting evidence, and close connection between sentences.” </li></ul><ul><li>-pg 90 </li></ul><ul><li>(read Sample 1, page 89) </li></ul>Features of a Paragraph
  • 9. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Topic Sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Unity </li></ul><ul><li>Coherence </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate Development </li></ul>
  • 10. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Topic Sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + Controlling Idea = Topic Sentence </li></ul>
  • 11. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Topic Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>1. A topic sentence must be a complete sentence, not a fragment. 2. A topic sentence is usually a direct statement, not a question. 3. The subject of the topic sentence is usually the subject idea of the paragraph. </li></ul>
  • 12. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Topic Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>4. The verb and complement of the topic sentence usually show the controlling idea of the paragraph. 5. The focus part or controlling idea of the topic sentences usually presents a judgment or attitude about the subject. 6. A subordinate word group is sometimes used in the topic sentence to define the focus still further. </li></ul>
  • 13. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Topic Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1 </li></ul><ul><li>People can avoid burglaries by taking certain precautions. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you expect to see? </li></ul>The precautions one can take in order to avoid burglaries
  • 14. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Topic Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2 </li></ul><ul><li>There are several advantages to growing up in a small town. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you expect to see? </li></ul>The advantages of growing up in a small town
  • 15. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Topic Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Example 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Most US universities require a 550 point TOEFL score for a number of reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you expect to see? </li></ul>The reasons for requiring this score
  • 16. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Topic Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Example 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Effective leadership requires specific qualities that anyone can develop. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you expect to see? </li></ul>The qualities of effective leadership
  • 17. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Bad Topic Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>“ New Orleans is famous because it is located by the Mississippi River, which is very wide, and because it has many swamps which are called bayous by the local people.” </li></ul>
  • 18. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Bad Topic Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>This topic sentence contains too many details. </li></ul><ul><li>Topic sentences are general, and details should appear later in the paragraph. A better topic sentence would be: </li></ul><ul><li>New Orleans is famous for several amazing geographical features. </li></ul>
  • 19. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Bad Topic Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>“ There are two reasons why some people like to buy cars with automatic transmission and two reasons why others like cars with manual transmission.” </li></ul>
  • 20. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Bad Topic Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>This topic sentence is not good because it mentions two topics, not just one. </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraphs are usually about one main thing, so their topic sentences should also be about only one main thing. </li></ul><ul><li>There are various reasons why some people like to buy cars with automatic transmissions. </li></ul>
  • 21. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Bad Topic Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>“ Clouds are white.” </li></ul>
  • 22. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Bad Topic Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>This is not a good topic sentence because it is too general. </li></ul><ul><li>The color of clouds are determined by various factors. </li></ul>
  • 23. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Topic Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Regardless of whether you include an explicit or implicit topic sentence, you should be able to easily summarize what the paragraph is about. </li></ul>
  • 24. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Topic Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>A carefully thought out topic sentence will serve two important functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the author with a focus or objective. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides readers with the tools they need to clearly understand what you have to say. </li></ul>
  • 25. <ul><li>Unity </li></ul><ul><li>The entire paragraph should concern itself with a single focus. If it begins with a one focus or major point of discussion, it should not end with another or wander within different ideas. </li></ul>Elements of a Paragraph
  • 26. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Coherence </li></ul><ul><li>Coherence is the trait that makes the paragraph easily understandable to a reader. You can help create coherence in your paragraphs by creating logical bridges and verbal bridges . </li></ul>
  • 27. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Coherence </li></ul><ul><li>Logical Bridges </li></ul><ul><li>The same idea of a topic is carried over from sentence to sentence. </li></ul>
  • 28. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Coherence </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Bridges </li></ul><ul><li>Key words can be repeated in several sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Synonymous words can be repeated in several sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Pronouns can refer to nouns in previous sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Transition words can be used to link ideas from different sentences </li></ul>
  • 29. Elements of a Paragraph <ul><li>Adequate Development </li></ul><ul><li>The topic should be discussed fully and adequately by using supporting evidence. </li></ul>
  • 30. Next Week: Developing Paragraphs
  • 31. Writing Assignment State, explain, and describe to a general academic audience one social problem that can be fixed during your lifetime. Due in 2 weeks Underline the topic sentence of each paragraph.
  • 32. Writing Assignment Definition Social : of or relating to human society, the interaction of the individual and the group, or the welfare of human beings as members of society
  • 33. Writing Assignment <ul><li>Hints: </li></ul><ul><li>What is the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it affect the whole world or just a specific region/location? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the history of this problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the current situation of this problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Whom does it affect? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it a problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What can you do to solve it in your lifetime? </li></ul>
  • 34. Reading Assignment Read Chapter 4. You will have about two weeks to read the chapter. Review notes from Chapter 3.

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