Lesson 5   Paragraphs
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  • 1. Lesson Five Paragraphs
  • 2. www.slideshare.net/msbirkbeck
  • 3. www.slideshare.net/msbirkbeck
  • 4. Radio Show Thursday at 12:30 Lecture Series
  • 5. A Brief History
    • Latin: Paragraphus
    • "A horizontal stroke drawn below the beginning of a line in which a break in sense occurs."
  • 6.
    • English: Pilcrow
    A Brief History
  • 7.
    • Modern English: Paragraph
    • “ A unit of writing focused on a single idea or topic.”
    A Brief History
  • 8.
    • “… an effective paragraph has three fundamental features: a central idea, supporting evidence, and close connection between sentences.”
    • -pg 90
    • (read Sample 1, page 89)
    Features of a Paragraph
  • 9. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Topic Sentence
    • Unity
    • Coherence
    • Adequate Development
  • 10. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Topic Sentence
    • Subject + Controlling Idea = Topic Sentence
  • 11. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Topic Sentences
    • 1. A topic sentence must be a complete sentence, not a fragment. 2. A topic sentence is usually a direct statement, not a question. 3. The subject of the topic sentence is usually the subject idea of the paragraph.
  • 12. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Topic Sentences
    • 4. The verb and complement of the topic sentence usually show the controlling idea of the paragraph. 5. The focus part or controlling idea of the topic sentences usually presents a judgment or attitude about the subject. 6. A subordinate word group is sometimes used in the topic sentence to define the focus still further.
  • 13. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Topic Sentences
    • Example 1
    • People can avoid burglaries by taking certain precautions.
    • What do you expect to see?
    The precautions one can take in order to avoid burglaries
  • 14. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Topic Sentences
    • Example 2
    • There are several advantages to growing up in a small town.
    • What do you expect to see?
    The advantages of growing up in a small town
  • 15. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Topic Sentences
    • Example 3
    • Most US universities require a 550 point TOEFL score for a number of reasons.
    • What do you expect to see?
    The reasons for requiring this score
  • 16. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Topic Sentences
    • Example 4
    • Effective leadership requires specific qualities that anyone can develop.
    • What do you expect to see?
    The qualities of effective leadership
  • 17. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Bad Topic Sentences
    • “ New Orleans is famous because it is located by the Mississippi River, which is very wide, and because it has many swamps which are called bayous by the local people.”
  • 18. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Bad Topic Sentences
    • This topic sentence contains too many details.
    • Topic sentences are general, and details should appear later in the paragraph. A better topic sentence would be:
    • New Orleans is famous for several amazing geographical features.
  • 19. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Bad Topic Sentences
    • “ There are two reasons why some people like to buy cars with automatic transmission and two reasons why others like cars with manual transmission.”
  • 20. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Bad Topic Sentences
    • This topic sentence is not good because it mentions two topics, not just one.
    • Paragraphs are usually about one main thing, so their topic sentences should also be about only one main thing.
    • There are various reasons why some people like to buy cars with automatic transmissions.
  • 21. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Bad Topic Sentences
    • “ Clouds are white.”
  • 22. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Bad Topic Sentences
    • This is not a good topic sentence because it is too general.
    • The color of clouds are determined by various factors.
  • 23. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Topic Sentences
    • Regardless of whether you include an explicit or implicit topic sentence, you should be able to easily summarize what the paragraph is about.
  • 24. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Topic Sentences
    • A carefully thought out topic sentence will serve two important functions:
    • Provides the author with a focus or objective.
    • Provides readers with the tools they need to clearly understand what you have to say.
  • 25.
    • Unity
    • The entire paragraph should concern itself with a single focus. If it begins with a one focus or major point of discussion, it should not end with another or wander within different ideas.
    Elements of a Paragraph
  • 26. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Coherence
    • Coherence is the trait that makes the paragraph easily understandable to a reader. You can help create coherence in your paragraphs by creating logical bridges and verbal bridges .
  • 27. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Coherence
    • Logical Bridges
    • The same idea of a topic is carried over from sentence to sentence.
  • 28. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Coherence
    • Verbal Bridges
    • Key words can be repeated in several sentences
    • Synonymous words can be repeated in several sentences
    • Pronouns can refer to nouns in previous sentences
    • Transition words can be used to link ideas from different sentences
  • 29. Elements of a Paragraph
    • Adequate Development
    • The topic should be discussed fully and adequately by using supporting evidence.
  • 30. Next Week: Developing Paragraphs
  • 31. Writing Assignment State, explain, and describe to a general academic audience one social problem that can be fixed during your lifetime. Due in 2 weeks Underline the topic sentence of each paragraph.
  • 32. Writing Assignment Definition Social : of or relating to human society, the interaction of the individual and the group, or the welfare of human beings as members of society
  • 33. Writing Assignment
    • Hints:
    • What is the problem?
    • Does it affect the whole world or just a specific region/location?
    • What is the history of this problem?
    • What is the current situation of this problem?
    • Whom does it affect?
    • Why is it a problem?
    • What can you do to solve it in your lifetime?
  • 34. Reading Assignment Read Chapter 4. You will have about two weeks to read the chapter. Review notes from Chapter 3.