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Literature Oral Tradition: the tradition of telling stories rather than writing them. Song, Lyric, they can also convey a history, give meaning to a culture. Oral Tradition also creates a comfort to audiences in that they can make sense of the world around them based off of stories. Stories of moral and virtuous topics. Literature: writings in prose and verse: writings have excellence in form or expression: expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest
Literature Homer Homer’s Style/Form: Lyrical Epic A style of Lyric or verse that is sung or spoken to an audience.
Literature Homer The Homeric Question: the question of Homer’s true existence, when he wrote, and even if he wrote his works. Scholars alike state that Homer never actually wrote the text because of the oral tradition Different people recited history as it happened Homer did receive credit for writing or presenting the two great Epics: The Iliad and The Odyssey
Literature Homer Clues to the date of Homer’s epics: Physical details, descriptions of armor, the actual date of the war against Troy. This leads scholars to date Homer’s ‘writings’ to either 13th or 8th century B.C.
Literature Homer Homer’s epics are not actually written down until the 4th Century B.C. Texts were only written for preservation. The public only heard these texts spoken or preformed. The first literature in European culture is heard instead of written.
Lyrical Poetry Lyric: from the Greek word for Lyra and is a short song sung with music. Lyre Two Forms: Monody: Lyric that is read or sung by a single player or performer Choral: Lyrics that are sung or read by a group of people
Lyrical Poetry Sappho (612-580 B.C.) Considered to be the greatest of all the lyric poets. Lived on the island Lesbos which is located on the northwestern Aegean Sea. She wrote in the Monody style Generally wrote on themes of love: lost, found, and pain
Sappho 31 He seems to me, that man, almost a god— the man, who is face to face with you, sitting close enough to you to hear your sweet whispering And your laughter, glistening, which the heart in my breast beats for. For when on you I glance, I do not, not one sound, emit. But my tongue snaps, lightly runs beneath my flesh a flame, and from my eyes no light, and rumbling comes into my ears, And my skin grows damp, and trembling all over racks me, and greener than the grass am I, and one step short of dying I seem to myself.
Drama Drama (n): a composition in verse or prose intended to portray life or character or to tell a story usually involving conflicts and emotions through action and dialogue and typically designed for theatrical performance
Drama Origins: Followers of the god Dionysus (the god of fertility and wine). Followers formed a cult, where they would perform ceremonies and sacrifice animals. Dionysians later developed a more structured form of drama. They would take Greek myth, and add song and dancing in a choral style.
Drama Thespis: a priest of Dionysus, became the first actor by creating his own dialouge with the chorus. Actors in the west have often been proud to call themselves Thespians.
Drama Tragedy(n): : a medieval narrative poem or tale typically describing the downfall of a great man b: a serious drama typically describing a conflict between the protagonist and a superior force (as destiny) and having a sorrowful or disastrous conclusion that elicits pity or terror
Drama Sophocles (496-406 B.C.) Was a writer of great and famous tragedies. Wrote 123 plays and 24 of those plays were victorious in competition. Most famous play: Oedipus The King
Tragedy Oedipus The King When Oedipus was child, an Oracle (soothsayer, witch, fortuneteller) let it be known that Oedipus would grow up to kill his father and marry his mother. His Parents sent him to live with a Shepard on a hillside, but Oedipus left and ran away to the city of Corinth where was brought up by the King of Corinth Hearing about the Oracle’s prophacy, he runs away, but ends up killing his father, and then falling in love unknowingly to his mother
Tragedy Oedipus the King Later, Oedipus finds out that the Oracle’s prophecy was all along true and unavoidable, so he blinds himself with a knife and wanders the earth in shame. This plot becomes an important plot to many drama’s and tragedies to follow. It also defines a lot of modern psychology that we will hopefully cover more towards the end of the term.
Comedy Comedy : genre of dramatic literature dealing with the comic or with the serious in a light or satirical manner. Satire: a literary work holding up human vices and follies to ridicule or scorn Take human vices and make fun of them using wit and humor. The usually had a happy ending
Comedy Aristophanes (450-380 B.C.) Great writer of Comedies: Frogs , Clouds , Wasps , and Birds His plays satirize contemporary people, gods, and social situations in odd ways to prove a point. His main point is to show humanity and the humor in their vices (faults).
Four Categories of Art Architecture Painting Sculpture Painted Pottery
Architecture First Architecture in Greece were houses. Built from wattle and dub: Sticks woven together and sealed with mud.
Architecture Late Bronze Age: mainland Greece began to build palaces, made of stone Dark Ages: there were no kings, and a lot of the palaces burned, so they built temples for gods.
Architecture Classical Period: more temples are built, different designs: the Parthenon Hellenistic Period: not many other temples built, this time period, the theatre is constructed.
Sculpture Made of Marble and Limestone Sculptures and statues were not valued in Greece Both can be burned to make Lime, which is a key ingrediant in cement.
Painting It is documented that the Greeks painted all through history, but most of their work was burned and lost.