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Invention
Invention
Invention
Invention
Invention
Invention
Invention
Invention
Invention
Invention
Invention
Invention
Invention
Invention
Invention
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Invention
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Invention
Invention
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Invention
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Invention

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  • 1. Lesson Two: Invention
  • 2. Of fi ce Ho u rs Wednesday 12-2 p.m. And by appointment
  • 3. Email: [email_address] www.slideshare.net/msbirkbeck
  • 4. What is ar gu ment?
  • 5. Our defi ni tion of argument “ The aim or purpose of argument is to use logic (both inductive and deductive) to create reasoned communication of ideas, insights, and experiences to some audience so as to produce a new understanding of some issue for that audience.”
  • 6. Today’s O bj ective By the end of this lesson, you should know: How to use different thinking processes to systematically develop and analyze key ideas prior to the drafting process. Pg. 124 in your text
  • 7. Inv en tion Four Great Inventions
  • 8. Inv en tion Famous Inventors through history…
  • 9. Inv en tion Famous Inventors through history…
  • 10. Inv en tion Inventio- process of discovering ideas or perceiving new relationships among ideas.
  • 11. Inv en tion Ancient Greeks: thinking strategies, used to discover ideas for public speeches, debates, legislative, judicial and literary purposes.
  • 12. Inv en tion In writing, invention helps the writer discover ideas that may be used in drafting. Generate Ideas Analytical Thinking See parts that create a whole Relationships they create
  • 13. Inv en tion The Invention Guide Collection of strategies to invent or discover ideas for a specific writing topic, claim or idea. Definition Exemplification Comparison Causality Effects
  • 14. G uiding Co nc epts
    • Always isolate and analyze key ideas
    • 2. Pursue any vague but interesting ideas relevant to some part of the writing prompt or audience as they turn up in your thinking and notes
    • 3. Realize that an idea discovered in definitional thinking might be further developed and analyzed in cause and effect, or exemplification or comparison
  • 15. G uiding Co nc epts The basic idea of invention is simply to create as much material as you can. Create, create, and create even more. At the end you are going to have a lot of material to work with when you write your first draft. Of course, you won’t use everything.
  • 16. G uiding Co nc epts It’s alright to be messy! The goals is not neatness or perfection. Rather, the goal is to generate as much material as possible. Do whatever works best for you .
  • 17. G uiding Co nc epts All of our examples are going to be for the general topic: “ Vegetarianism”
  • 18. G uiding Co nc epts How I started : Start with what you know and make claims even if you are not sure they are correct. These are my notes, yours do not necessarily have to look exactly like this. Your notes need to follow the guide, but also explore your style of writing
  • 19. G uiding Co nc epts From my own observation, vegetarians have always gotten a lot of criticism from society. In a society where consuming animal products is a largely organized process and business, vegetarians have a difficult time eating a carnivorous society. Write an essay arguing the benefits of becoming a vegetarian. The benefits towards not only the body, but also towards the environment
  • 20. G uiding Co nc epts Vegetarianism American’s eat too much meat Too much meat is unhealthy for the body One can still gain or obtain maximum nutritional value by cutting out meat in their diet. Meat is mainly a good source of protein, how much protein does one actually need in his or her own diet? Eating the right combination of vegetables can provide one with the proper amount of protein. Eating too much meat adds more and more fat to one’s diet. There is no fiber in meat Fiber is an important
  • 21. Defin it ional Thi nk ing Whole definition formula (Key idea to be analyzed) + (form of the verb to be ) + (category idea) + (restricting ideas)
  • 22. Defin it ional Thi nk ing
    • Begin with a key idea to think about.
    • 2. Follow that word by is or are or any other tense or form of the verb to be.
  • 23. Defin it ional Thi nk ing
    • Think of a category that somehow restricts your word; you may use the phrase kind of to help create a restricting category; the category word or phrase follows is or are .
    • 4. Use one of these words ( who , that , when , if , by , because , or caused by ) to add ideas [in a clause or phrase(s)] that further restrict and define the category word or phrase.
  • 24. Defin it ional Thi nk ing Choose a key idea or topic to place in the first slot. Some form of the verb to be will cause your mind to follow that verb with an idea that begins to define and analyze the key but vague idea.
  • 25. Defin it ional Thi nk ing Whole definition formula (Key idea to be analyzed) + (form of the verb to be ) + (category idea) + (restricting ideas)
  • 26. Defin it ional Thi nk ing Example: Vegetarianism is: Healthy helps with weight loss helpful for the environment healthier than alternate diets labeled a certain way by society misunderstood Key Idea + To be verb + {Category}
  • 27. Defin it ional Thi nk ing 4. Use one of these words ( who , that , when , if , by , because , or caused by ) to add ideas [in a clause or phrase(s)] that further restrict and define the category word or phrase.
  • 28. Defin it ional Thi nk ing Vegetarianism is healthy for the body because meat is excluded from the diet and there is less fat in the diet. *Because meals often contain more nutrients. When the diet does not contain any animal products *Because eating meat is unhealthy Because meals do not contain as much fat because there is not too much protein in one’s diet Key Idea + To be verb + {Category} + Restricting Ideas
  • 29. C om parative Thi nk ing Look for ideas or concepts within your notes that can be thought about by comparisons of similarities and/or differences.
  • 30. C om parative Thi nk ing Vegetarian diets contain more nutrients than meat diets A vegetarian diet can provide a person with just as much protein as a meat diet A vegetarian provides more energy and a better quality life than a meat diet
  • 31. C om parative Thi nk ing Help make comparative thinking efficient by creating focus points , specific points of comparison through which two or more ideas, experiences, or objects can be analyzed.
  • 32. C om parative Thi nk ing Vegetarian diets contain more nutrients than meat diets. Focus Point: What are the differences in nutritional value between a vegetarian diet and a diet that includes meat?
  • 33. C om parative Thi nk ing Comparative thinking works in two basic ways: 1. Make the comparisons in terms of shared similarities or unshared contrasts. This form generates ideas when something less familiar is compared with something more familiar.
  • 34. C om parative Thi nk ing Comparative thinking works in two basic ways: 2. A second form is analyses for similarities and differences when both parts of the comparisons are known but unexamined. Create comparisons to reveal details of similarity and contrast for previously known but unanalyzed ideas, objects, experiences, and so on.
  • 35. C om parative Thi nk ing Remember, vague but good ideas will turn up in your invention guide notes without another comparison neatly attached. You have to recognize the possibility for comparative thinking and create the other half—the thing to compare your ideas and notes with. (Sometimes, of course, both parts of a comparison are present.)
  • 36. C om parative Thi nk ing Once you have two halves of comparisons, help your mind to work efficiently by creating “focus points” for the comparison. Ask yourself, what do I want to learn from comparing X with Y?
  • 37. C om parative Thi nk ing Meat Amino acids Iron High source of protein Vitamin B-12 No-meat in diet Same amount of amino acids Iron Lower source of protein Vitamin B-12 (often difficult to find in non-meat products) Can be found in free range eggs, yeast, and soy products
  • 38. C om parative Thi nk ing One of the main arguments that society or nutritionists make against vegetarianism is that when someone cuts meat out of their diet, they tend to lack certain specific nutrients that only meat can provide, such as iron, crucial amino acids and vitamin b-12. According to vegsoc.org, certain vegetables and grains alone will not fulfill these nutritional needs, however, with the right combination of grains, green vegetables and free range eggs, a vegetarian can still have a well balanced diet with less protein and less of the health risks that come with consuming too much meat.
  • 39. C om parative Thi nk ing Benefits of becoming a vegetarian that does not include health? Money Environmental effects Make other comparisons between how much money it costs to buy meat instead of vegetables and fruits.
  • 40. Eff ec tive Thi nk ing
    • Review key ideas for ideas that could be further developed by analyzing the effects of those ideas. Use these two questions to generate effects analysis:
    • What has happened because X exists?
    • (2) What is likely to happen in the future because X exists?
  • 41. Eff ec tive Thi nk ing The analysis of effects requires the mind to take an idea, action, belief, experience, or value and then to consider what will result from any one of those. Results from the past or any speculation of results in the future
  • 42. Eff ec tive Thi nk ing What are the effects on someone’s health and well being when their diet is changed to a vegetarian diet? You would then want to research health effects of changing diets. Seek out future effects, past research done on vegetarians.
  • 43. Exem pli fication Thi nk ing Create examples that illustrate key words, ideas, or concepts. These may come directly from the writing prompt or from notes in any other section of the invention guide where vague , abstract , or general ideas occur.
  • 44. Exem pli fication Thi nk ing Vague Idea: American’s eat too much meat Because they are influenced by the society Specific: by the media and corporations Find an example: Evidence about Corporations spending millions of dollars on advertising the meat industry. How does this affect the American consumer?
  • 45. Ca us al Thi nk ing Take a key idea or ideas from your notes and follow it with the word because or the phrase caused by . Causality helps you to discover why or how some idea, event, value, attitude, belief, or feeling occurs; causality provides reasons for.
  • 46. Ca us al Thi nk ing American’s eat too much meat. Vague Idea What causes American’s to eat too much meat? Corporations Media Culture Dishes in restaurants Fast Food
  • 47. Ho me work Write 5 – 8 pages of invention notes in your writing notebook. You must use all types of invention in your notes. Remember, pursue any vague or general ideas and try to make them more concrete. This does not need to be neat! In fact, it’s probably going to be messy.
  • 48. Re ad ing Chapter 8; pages 246-256

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