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Reasarch proposal (The Influence of Indonesian Language toward English Writing)

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  • 1. The Influence of Indonesian Language toward English Writing Nanda Puspitasari (521100016) Paula Damayana (521100040) Ria Dwi Pratiwi (521100005) Sartika (521100127) Triyani (521100080) STKIP PGRI Pontianak Abstract Language is the most important aspect in the life of all beings. We use language to express inner thoughts and emotions, make sense of complex and abstract thought, to learn to communicate with others, to fulfill our wants and needs, as well as to establish rules and maintain our culture.Writing activities were more fun than listening or reading because writing is a work of art that is poured through one's understanding is then written in a style of his own language.The things that need to be considered when writing in English is a great language structure, conjunctions between sentences to one another must be related, punctuation should be clear, do not use words that are not raw, it is better to use active voice rather than passive voice, and not rigid in applying the language of one language into another. In this research, the writer want to know the influence Indonesian language toward English writing. The result of this research that to apply at STKIP PGRI Pontianak, can be found that there is the influence Indonesian language toward English writing. Keyword : Indonesian, English, Writing.
  • 2. A. INTRODUCTION 1. Background Language is very important in human life. Language is means of communication. Without a language, a person cannot communicate with others. Language is an extremely important way of interacting with the people around us. We use language to let others know how we feel, what we need, and to ask questions. The importance of communication can be often ignored. Even with the ability to communicate with each other. Understanding the language has been largely defined by experts in their respective views. Bill Adams says that language is a system of individual psychological development, Wittgenstein interpret that language is a form of thinking that can be understood, while Saussure defines if the language is object of Semiology. While the general notion that language is a tool to interact or communicate to convey thoughts, ideas, concepts or feelings of being used by a man, in the form of the sound produced by the instrument man sauce. Language was created as a universal communication tool that is expected to be understood by any human being to do a social interaction with other human beings. Language consists of a collection of words or phrases that each arrangement has the meaning of words to express ideas, thoughts or feelings. Therefore, we should choose the right words and arrange the words according to grammatical rules that exist, so that the meaning contained in each sentence can be conveyed properly and clearly. The increase in the use of English in Asia is awe-inspiring (Kachru, 1997) and currently the number of Asian population who uses English has reached 350 million people. Since English is currently employed by numerous countries as their official language. English is a language in the world. People call it a international language. In our school, the English language has been given since the fourth grade of the
  • 3. elementary school up to university.English can be at least understood almost everywhere among scholars and educated people, as it is the world media language, and the language of cinema, TV, pop music and the computer world. All over the planet people know many English words, their pronunciation and meaning. English language terms are defined in the first section below. The next section has definitions for English modifiers, verbs, other types and affixation. It is very fortunate that the two languages are so similar. Even though the definitions below are for English, nearly all of the terms have similar concepts in bahasa Indonesia as well. A major difference is that modifiers come after the words modified in Indonesian while they are placed before the nouns in English. Another difference is that bahasa Indonesia doesn't have Articles (no "a, an or the"). Language includes four skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The four basic skills are related to each other by two parameters. First, the mode of communication: oral or written. Second, the direction of communication: receiving or producing the message. In this case, the writer discussed about writing skill. Writing is language activity that needs much cognitive concentration. When writing, a writer is challenged to use just linguistics code without helping of other codes, take for instance, gestures. A writer has to arrange some ideas and transform them into his thinking carefully in writing codes on papers. In fact, writing is different from writing Indonesian. English as stated above is a foreign language for Indonesian student. English is a new language that they often have trouble when they learn it. One of the reason is the characteristics of English itself. For example, tenses, regular and irregular verb are not found in Indonesia. On contrary, Indonesia is a language which the students have got earlier basically, we believe that student of STKIP have enough knowledge of it
  • 4. and have known to use it well and correctly. So it is possible that Indonesian, though it is a school language for most of them, can regard as the student’s mother tongue. They use Indonesian more frequently with they friends and teachers. Moreover, Indonesian is very close to them, to their speaking or writing habits. This is one thing that invites problems when the student writes the sentences composition in English. In writing in English, especially for the academic field, we need to use the grammar are standard, as does the use of Enhanced Indonesian Spelling. However in reality, especially for daily conversation, grammar is not preferred. Laying the distorted words are still understandable, for keywords pronounced, and the sentence is still understandable interlocutors. 2. Research Problems 1. What are the influence of Indonesian language toward English writing? 3. Research purpose This study, to know influence of Indonesian language toward English Writing.
  • 5. B. LITERATURE REVIEW 1. Language Language is the most important aspect in the life of all beings. We use language to express inner thoughts and emotions, make sense of complex and abstract thought, to learn to communicate with others, to fulfill our wants and needs, as well as to establish rules and maintain our culture. Language can be defined as verbal, physical, biologically innate, and a basic form of communication. Behaviorists often define language as a learned behavior involving a stimulus and a response (Ormrod, 1995). Often times they will refer to language as verbal behavior, which is language that includes gestures and body movements as well as spoken word (Pierce & Eplin, 1999). When we define language we have to be careful not to exclude symbols, gestures, or motions. This is because if we exclude these from our definition, we will be denying the language of the deaf community. All human languages share basic characteristics, some of which are organizational rules and infinite generativity. Infinite generativity is the ability to produce an infinite number of sentences using a limited set of rules and words. (Santrock & Mitterer, 2001). 2. Definition of Indonesian Indonesian is the official language of the Republic of Indonesia and the Indonesian language of national unity. Indonesian inaugurated after the proclamation of Indonesian independence, precisely the day after, simultaneously with the entry into force of the constitution. In East Timor, Indonesian plays as a working language. From the linguistic point of view, Indonesian is a variant of the Malay language. Basic used Malay is the language of the 19th century. He experienced a
  • 6. change in its development due to its use as a working language in the colonial administration and standardization of processes since the early 20th century. Naming "Indonesian" Youth Pledge initiated since its launch, October 28, 1928, to avoid the impression "language imperialism" when fixed used. Process name Malay Indonesian This causes different variants of the language currently used in Riau Malay and the Malay Peninsula. Until now, the Indonesian is a living language, which continues to produce new words, either through the creation and absorption of local languages and foreign language. Although it is understood and spoken by more than 90 % of people in Indonesia, the Indonesian is not the native language for most speakers. The majority of Indonesian citizens to use one of the existing 748 in Indonesian language as a mother tongue. Indonesian speakers often use everyday version and or mixing with other Malay dialect or mother tongue. Nonetheless, Indonesian is used very widely in the universities, in the media, literature, software, official correspondence, and various other public forums, so it can be said that the Indonesian is used by all citizens of Indonesia. 3. Manner of Writing in Indonesian In communicating with others, we recognize spoken language and written language. Both of these languages often cause misunderstandings. The use of a goo6d and correct sentences (the so-called effective sentence) will facilitate understood others so that misunderstandings can be avoided which happens frequently. To make the sentence easier to understand spoken or written by someone else, there are two conditions that must be met. First, the sentence can accurately represent the ideas or feelings of the speaker or writer. Second , the sentence could lead to precisely the same idea in mind of the listener or reader as thought by the speaker or writer. Effective sentence can be interpreted as sentences composed of words element of a subject, predicate, object, and statements or sentences that are not
  • 7. convoluted. Of these meanings, it can be concluded that the effective sentence is a sentence that is tailored to the language rules in force, which has the ability to reawaken ideas in mind of the listener or reader as on the mind of the speaker or writer. The understanding of a sentence can not be separated from an understanding of the words and the rules contained in the sentence. To establish an effective sentence, the choice of words (diction) right is necessary for the information submitted in accordance with the intent of the speaker or writer. With diction, the speaker or writer is required to learn a variety of words, such as words meaningful connotation and denotation, synonyms, idioms, and common words and special words. The words sometimes have a similar meaning that can changed other words to achieve the same meaning as the sentence effectively. However, the speaker or writer should also consider factors outside the influence of language on the use of the word. Typically, an effective sentence used in scientific writings, such as term papers, research reports, thesis, theses, and dissertations. Effective sentence is rarely used by the writers or journalists because they are more often used figure of speech. The conditions that must exist in writing effective sentences, among others, 1) has the essential elements or basic, minimal elements of subject and predicate. 2) in accordance with EYD. 3) using appropriate diction. 4 ) using the equivalence between the structure of language and the way logical and systematic thinking. 5) using parallel forms of the language used. 6) there is an emphasis main idea. 7) refers to the use of the word frugality. 8) using a variety of sentence structures. Characteristics of Effective Sentences in writing effective sentences, especially in scientific work, there are some characteristics that must be considered. The following are the characteristics of effective writing sentences. Equivalence, the balance between mind (ideas) and the structure of spoken languages. The characteristics of word equivalence,among other sentences have
  • 8. clear functions, there is no double subject, conjunctions used appropriately, as well as the predicate is not preceded by the word. Parallels, the similarities of form of words used in the sentence. The point is that if the first sentence uses the verb, the second sentence, and so on also use the verb. Frugality, saving the use of words, phrases, or other forms deemed unnecessary. Some things you can do for frugality, among other subjects eliminate repetition, avoiding the use of superordinate hyponymy said, avoiding synonymy in one sentence, and not pluralize words plural. Accuracy, which is a sentence that is used does not cause double interpretation and precise in their choice of words. Accuracy includes several aspects, such as accuracy in sentence structure, word choice, spelling and usage. Cohesion or coherence, cohesion statement is used in the sentence so that the information submitted is not split. Cohesiveness in effective sentence should pay attention to several aspects, among others, do not long-winded sentences, using the pattern facet + agent + in an orderly verbal sentence predicated persona, and do not insert a word in the predicate verb and object sufferers. Logic, namely the idea that sentences are acceptable by reasonable and in accordance with the applicable rules. logic in writing effective sentences is associated with reasoning, the process of thinking to connect the facts in order to create a conclusionn. 4. Definition of English English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now the most widely used language in the world. It is spoken as a first language by the majority populations of several sovereign states, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada,Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and a number of Caribbean nations. It is the third-most-common native language in the world, after Mandarin Chinese and Spanish. It is widely learned as
  • 9. a second language and is an official language of the European Union, many Commonwealth countries and the United Nations, as well as in many world organizations. (Wikipedia.com) English grammar has avariation in the structure and use, it depends on the tradition of being used by a country which is influenced by the native language of that country. In general, the grammar is agrammar guided American English and British United Kingdom (British). 5. Manner of Writing in English Writing activities were more fun than listening or reading because writing is a work of art that is poured through one's understanding is then written in a style of his own language. Language set forth in writing depending on the cultural background of the language, of course, has a different uniqueness. So what if they wrote it in English? For now it can be said very few devotees, most of them are not proficient in English grammar and lack of vocabulary. Whereas someone absorption can be measured against a language of his writing. However, often one would rather listen and read (English passive), compared with speaking and writing (English is active). Writing in English is required expertise and skills also require diligence and thoroughness. The things that need to be considered when writing in English is a great language structure, conjunctions between sentences to one another must be related, punctuation should be clear, do not use words that are not raw, it is better to use active voice rather than passive voice, and not rigid in applying the language of one language into another. Of course there are many that must be considered in writing English so into writing in accordance with the standards of the reader. Keep doing the exercises is the best way to get maximum results written in English. Another way is to familiarize yourself to read more articles or books in English. By default, the habit of reading a particular sentence structure will affect the structure of the sentence to be prepared with their own writing. The point is indirectly the understanding of a reading can enrich comparative reasoning and writing in English.
  • 10. 6. Compare between Indonesian Language and English language Compared with English language, Indonesian does not use air- gender words. For example, pronouns like "dia" did not specifically indicate whether the person referred to was male or female. The same is also found in words such as “adik" and "pacar" as an example. To specify a gender, an adjective must be added, "adik laki-laki" as an example. There is also word that sex, like for example "putri" and "putra". Words like these are usually absorbed from other languages . In the above case, both said it was absorbed from the Sanskrit through the Old Javanese language. To change a noun into a plural form is used reduplication (repetition word), but only if the amount is not involved in the context. As an example of "seribu orang" is used, rather than "seribu orang-orang". Repetition is also said to have many other uses, not limited to the noun. Indonesian uses two types of the first person plural, ie "kami" and "kita". "kami" are the exclusive pronoun which means not including the speaker, while "kita" is inclusive pronoun which means a group of people called, including his interlocutor. Basic word order is Subject - Predicate - Object (SPO), although other wording is also possible. Verb is not in the language inflectit to people or the number of subjects and objects. Indonesian also don’t know when (tense). Time is expressed by adding the adverb of time (like, "kemarin" or "besok"), or other clues such as "sudah" or "belum". With a fairly simple grammar Indonesian has its own complexity, namely the use of affixes that may be quite confusing for people who first learn Indonesian.
  • 11. C. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1. Research Setting This study will be conducted in fifth semester English Education at STKIP PGRI Pontianak. 2. Research Design The method is a way, approach, or process of conveying information (Rothwell&Kazanas). Research is one way to address issues that. Research is a process to achieve (systematically and supported by the data) answer to a question, a solution to the problem, or a deep understanding of a phenomenon. In order for research in doing Achieve the Desired goals, we need a good method in accordance with other Difficulties Studied. Research methods provide the knowledge and skills necessary to address the problems and challenges facing the environment in which decisions must be made quickly. One method that can be done to find answers to the problems studied is through the survey method. According Singarimbun and Effendi( 1989:3 ) cited by Purwanto (2010:174 ), survey research is the only research done on the sample. (Purwanto, 2010). Meanwhile, according to Suryana & Priyatna (2008)" Survey research is used to make general inferences (generalizations) of the samples were determined. In this study serves as the sample estimator of the population estimate." Thus, survey research is one type of descriptive research method conducted in large and small populations of phenomena related to various aspects of these populations to obtain actual information. Why do writer use survey research? Because the writer want to find out the influence of Indonesian language toward English writing.
  • 12. 3. Population, sample and sampling technique a. Population Population is a generalization region consisting of objects or subjects that have certain qualities and characteristics are determined by the investigator to be studied and then drawn conclusions (Sugiyono. 2005:90). To know the influence of Indonesian language toward English writing in A morning class English Education at STKIP PGRI Pontianak. b. Sample Samples are taken in part from the whole object the object under study and are considered representative of the entire population (Notoatmojo, 2003). The writer takes the samples in A Morning class, fifth semester English Education at STKIP PGRI Pontianak. The number of student is 25. c. Sampling The sampling technique used in this study is that the sampling quota sampling technique by establishing a number of sample members. Any member of the population to be taken does not matter, the important number of predefined quatum can be met (Notoatmodjo, 2005). The writer scrambles 10 among 25 students for the research result. 4. Technique of Data Collection Collection data in the form of a statement about the nature, circumstances, certain activities and the like. Collection data was conducted to obtain the information needed in order to achieve the research objectives (Gulo, 2002: 110). These data collection methods including self-report category (personal report) / description (self descriptive). Individual reports on the situation himself by inquiries or orders given to him. In this study the writer used a writing test to find outthe influence Indonesian language toward English writing. The type of test that is given is:
  • 13. Make up a report (± 100 words) on the social problems around you. Students are asked to write down their knowledge of social problems, and develop their ideas. The writer wanted to know the influence of Indonesian language toward English writing. Result research can be apply in table 3.4. 5. Technique of Analyzing Data According Ardhana 12 (in Lexy J. Moleong 200:103) explains that data analysis is the process of arranging the order of the data, organizing into a pattern, category, and description of the basic unit. According to Taylor, (1975:79) defines data analysis as the process of detailing a formal effort to find a theme and formulate hypotheses (ideas) as suggested and as an effort to provide assistance and theme of the hypothesis. If assessed, the first definition is more focused essentially organizing the data while the second emphasizes the intent and purposes of data analysis. Thus the definition can be synthesized that data analysis is the process of organizing and sorting data into patterns, categories and basic outline so that the unit can be found themes and can be formulated as a working hypothesis based on the data. In this study, the data analysis has been carried out simultaneously with the data collection process. The flow of analysis followed the interactive model as dictated Miles and Huberman (1984: 23). In this study, the writer provide a test to the student to determine the influence indonesian language toward english writing. From the research of 10 students made in the sample. Found that some students still use Indonesian manner of writing in English writing. While the procedure Indonesian writing and English there is a difference. To recall, the writer will discuss the differences in manner of writing Indonesian and English. In Indonesian writing using subject, predicate, object, and information (time, place, and circumstances). Whereas in English writing, the writer must use the correct pronunciation, should always include a verb and a subject. The time difference is very important, because there will be changes to be and a verb.
  • 14. But from the research, still there is not pay attention to his students. So, he applied his writing by using Indonesian, a rapid and interpreted in English. So, that the students write the English using the procedure Indonesian writing. Indonesian Writing is easier than English writing. However, if we know a lot of vocabulary, and the time difference formula. English writing can be easy and fun. D. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 1. Research findings Student Grammar Spelling Diction Paragraph development 1 √ √ √ √ 2 √ - √ √ 3 √ √ √ √ 4 - √ - √ 5 √ - √ - 6 √ - - - 7 √ - - - 8 - - - √ 9 - √ √ - 10 √ √ - √ Nb: √ if Indonesian language influence toward English writing From the data above, Indonesian state that influence the writing of the English language's grammar, spelling, diction, paragraph development. It can be explained that from the data above, the first student Indonesian languages influence in grammar, spelling, diction, and paragraph development. The second student
  • 15. Indonesian languages influence in grammar, diction, and paragraph development. The third student Indonesian languages influence in grammar, spelling, diction, and paragraph development. The fourth student Indonesian languages influence in spelling, and paragraph development. The fifth student Indonesian languages influence in grammar, and diction. The sixth, seventh, and ninth student Indonesian languages influence only in grammar. The eighth student Indonesian languages influence only in paragraph development. The tenth student Indonesian languages influence in grammar, spelling and paragraph development. Formula: Nb: X = Result, Y = ( √ Grammar, spelling, diction and paragraph development), Z (100%) So, of samples that have been taken writers concluded 57,5 % of Indonesian extremely influential in the writing of the English language. 2. Discussion In this study, the authors conclude that the results of tests given to students of writing there are still student swho are affected with Indonesian style. 5 of the 10 students made in the study sample was influenced by the writing style of Indonesian. Reviewing back on, Writing in English is required expertise and skills also require diligence and thoroughness. The things that need to be considered when writing in English is a great language structure, conjunctions between sentences to one another must be related, punctuation should be clear, do not use words that are not raw, it is better to use active voice rather than passive voice, and not rigid in applying the language of one language into another. Of course there are many that must be considered in writing English so into writing in accordance with the standards of the reader. Keep doing the exercises is the best way to get maximum
  • 16. results written in English. Another way is to familiarize yourself to read more articles or books in English. By default, the habit of reading a particular sentence structure will affect the structure of the sentence to be prepared with their own writing. The point is indirectly the understanding of a reading can enrich comparative reasoning and writing in English. But, the results of this study indicate that there is still a lot of errors in students' writing. As for the errors contained in this research is the use of poor grammar, and also the lack of proper diction. Diction is one of the important things in writing, lack of vocabulary knowledge makes us use those words alone, or in a short paragraph the students to use a word more than 5 times. In Indonesian, there is no change in the sense of writing. However, in the English language, one word can have many meanings. For example, the word "who" has the meaning of "siapa", but can also mean "yang". This is what makes students into difficulty in English writing. The difficulty in this case because of lack of knowledge about the students' vocabulary.
  • 17. E. CONCLUSIONS, SUGGESTIONS, AND IMPLICATION 1. Conclusion Based on this research, it can be concluded that the influence of Indonesian language toward English writing is vocabulary associated with the procurement of a different sentence structure of each language. The writer would like to express that the sentence structure is different from Indonesian and English may be a cause of influence in the students' English writing. In accordance with the results of the research, the writer have concluded the study as follows: 1. Students of a class morning fifth semester English education in Pontianak PGRI STKIP still use Indonesian structure in English writing. 2.The degree of influence that are the focus of this research is in the medium level. The data is taken from the results of tests the effect given to the students wrote. 2. Suggestions Based on the research conducted, the writer will give suggest, especially for those interested in research on the same topic. 1. For teachers, the best teachers should know and understand the difficulties the student in writing. So that, teachers can help students learn how to improve the knowledge and also to help students develop their ideas in writing. 2. To students, should master the grammar and vocabulary, it’s making to easier for students in English writing.
  • 18. REFERENCES Ali, Mohammad. 1992. Strategi Penelitian Pendidikan. Bandung: Angkasa Arikunto, Suhaisimi. 2006. Prosedur Penelitian. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta Brown H. Douglas . 1994. Mengajar dengan Prinsip . San Francisco State . Prentice Hall Regents Englewood Cliffs . DEPARTEMEN Pendidikan Dan Kebudayaan . 1992. Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia . Jakarta . Perum Balai Pustaka . Wishon , E. George dan Julia M. Burks . 1980 Mari Menulis Bahasa Inggris . New York Moleong, Lexy J. 2007. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: Rosda http://01.sil.org/lingualinks/languagelearning/OtherResources/GudlnsFrALnggAn dCltrLrnngPrgrm/FourBasicLanguageSkills.htm http://annie-ocktaviani.blogspot.com/2010/03/pengertian-bahasa-indonesia.html http://reselected.blogspot.com/2012/10/tata-cara-penulisan-bahasa-indonesia.html
  • 19. LAMPIRAN 1 INSTRUMENT PENELITIAN The Influence of Indonesian Language toward English Writing Collecting Data Attention: - no book - no dictionary - no phone - no access internet - no Google translate a. Instrument: Make up a report (±100 words) on the social issues around you Guideline: - Introduction of social problem - Social problems in Indonesia - Social problems around me b. Guidelines for Assessment The maximum score of each element = 25 Maximum score = 100 Acquisition score = 10x oreMaxsimumsc scoreAcquistion
  • 20. LAMPIRAN 2 Population No Name Class 1 Abang M rizkan A MORNING 2 Rizki putri utami 3 Irna arisna 4 Januarius 5 Mikawati 6 Afriani krisnawati 7 Wahyuni anggerianti 8 Sulastri 9 Herni fitriana 10 Firmansyah 11 Hengki pranata 12 Wahyuna safitri 13 Sisilina koya 14 Felisianus 15 Kaisar zulfikar 16 Rain lesmiati 17 Meli Ricardo 18 Resty fisky febrianti 19 Dian nurfita 20 Norma yantiastuti 21 M.zainudin 22 Daw munanda 23 Desma lestari 24 Kholifudin roma 25 Paskalis suharyo Total 25
  • 21. LAMPIRAN 3 Sample No CLASS NAME 1 A MORNING Abang M rizkan 2 Rizki putri utami 3 Irna arisna 4 Januarius 5 Mikawati 6 Afriani krisnawati 7 Wahyuni anggerianti 8 Sulastri 9 Herni fitriana 10 Firmansyah Total 10
  • 22. LAMPIRAN 4 Table D.1 Student Grammar Spelling Diction Paragraph development 1 √ √ √ √ 2 √ - √ √ 3 √ √ √ √ 4 - √ - √ 5 √ - √ - 6 √ - - - 7 √ - - - 8 - - - √ 9 - √ √ - 10 √ √ - √