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  • 1. Sparta and Athens
  • 2.
    • Solon
      • noble who made many reforms in Athens, such as canceling farmers’ debts and allowing all male citizens to participate in the assembly and law courts
    • Peisistratus
      • Tyrant who seized power in 560 BCE. Won the support of the poor by dividing large estates among landless farmers and providing jobs through building projects.
    • Cleisthenes
      • Reorganized Athenian gov’t so that the assembly played a central role in governing. He also created a council of 500 citizens to help carry out daily business.
  • 3.
    • helots
      • Captive workers of the Spartans (name comes from the Greek word for capture)
    • PLACES
    • Sparta
      • City-state in ancient Greece that primarily focused on its military(oligarchy/monarchy)
    • Athens
      • City-state in ancient Greece that was the birthplace of democracy; valued education and the arts
  • 4.
    • tyrant
      • Someone who takes power by force and rules with total authority
    • oligarchy
      • Rule by a few
    • democracy
      • a government controlled and run by the people(citizens)
  • 5.
    • Tyrants were popular because they had the backing of the common people. They kept their popularity by building new public buildings(temples, marketplaces, etc.) for the people.
  • 6.
    • The Greeks wanted a government that all citizens participated in, so eventually the tyrants fell out of favor.
  • 7.
    • Age 7- boys leave their families to live in the barracks and begin training
    • Age 20 – men enter the regular army
    • Age 30- could return home, but remained in the army until age 60
    • All men continued to train for combat
    • “ Come home carrying your shield or on it.”
  • 8.
    • The Spartans were afraid their captives, the helots, would revolt. Because of this, their government firmly controlled the people of Sparta and the military in particular.
  • 9.
    • To prevent people from questioning the government, they banned travel except for military reasons, they discouraged foreign visitors, and also frowned upon citizens who studied literature or the arts.
  • 10.
    • Boys-
    • At school, they learned reading, writing, mathematics, sports, and music. At age 18 they finished school and became citizens.
    • *At age 18 they typically enlisted in the army for 2 years. *
    • Girls-
    • Taught at home household duties such as spinning, weaving, etcetera. In wealthy families girls were sometimes educated by a tutor.
  • 11.
    • cancelled the debts of the farmers
    • freed those who had become slaves
    • allowed all male citizens to participate in the assembly and law courts
    • A council of 400 wealthy citizens still wrote the laws, but the assembly had to pass them
    • Solon refused to give away the wealthy nobles’ land, and so did not satisfy the farmers.
  • 12.
    • He divided large estates among landless farmers
    • Loaned money to poor people
    • Gave them jobs building temples and other public works
  • 13.
    • C. gave the members of the assembly new powers, they could
      • debate matters openly
      • hear court cases
      • appoint army generals
    • C. also created a new council of 500 citizens that could
      • propose laws
      • deal w/ foreign countries
      • oversee the treasury
      • Members of this council were chosen in a lottery