Chapter 4 Section 2

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Chapter 4 Section 2

  1. 1. Sparta and Athens
  2. 2. <ul><li>Solon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>noble who made many reforms in Athens, such as canceling farmers’ debts and allowing all male citizens to participate in the assembly and law courts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peisistratus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tyrant who seized power in 560 BCE. Won the support of the poor by dividing large estates among landless farmers and providing jobs through building projects. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cleisthenes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reorganized Athenian gov’t so that the assembly played a central role in governing. He also created a council of 500 citizens to help carry out daily business. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>helots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Captive workers of the Spartans (name comes from the Greek word for capture) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PLACES </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City-state in ancient Greece that primarily focused on its military(oligarchy/monarchy) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Athens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City-state in ancient Greece that was the birthplace of democracy; valued education and the arts </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>tyrant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who takes power by force and rules with total authority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>oligarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule by a few </li></ul></ul><ul><li>democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a government controlled and run by the people(citizens) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Tyrants were popular because they had the backing of the common people. They kept their popularity by building new public buildings(temples, marketplaces, etc.) for the people. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Greeks wanted a government that all citizens participated in, so eventually the tyrants fell out of favor. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Age 7- boys leave their families to live in the barracks and begin training </li></ul><ul><li>Age 20 – men enter the regular army </li></ul><ul><li>Age 30- could return home, but remained in the army until age 60 </li></ul><ul><li>All men continued to train for combat </li></ul><ul><li>“ Come home carrying your shield or on it.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The Spartans were afraid their captives, the helots, would revolt. Because of this, their government firmly controlled the people of Sparta and the military in particular. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>To prevent people from questioning the government, they banned travel except for military reasons, they discouraged foreign visitors, and also frowned upon citizens who studied literature or the arts. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Boys- </li></ul><ul><li>At school, they learned reading, writing, mathematics, sports, and music. At age 18 they finished school and became citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>*At age 18 they typically enlisted in the army for 2 years. * </li></ul><ul><li>Girls- </li></ul><ul><li>Taught at home household duties such as spinning, weaving, etcetera. In wealthy families girls were sometimes educated by a tutor. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>cancelled the debts of the farmers </li></ul><ul><li>freed those who had become slaves </li></ul><ul><li>allowed all male citizens to participate in the assembly and law courts </li></ul><ul><li>A council of 400 wealthy citizens still wrote the laws, but the assembly had to pass them </li></ul><ul><li>Solon refused to give away the wealthy nobles’ land, and so did not satisfy the farmers. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>He divided large estates among landless farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Loaned money to poor people </li></ul><ul><li>Gave them jobs building temples and other public works </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>C. gave the members of the assembly new powers, they could </li></ul><ul><ul><li>debate matters openly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hear court cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appoint army generals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C. also created a new council of 500 citizens that could </li></ul><ul><ul><li>propose laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deal w/ foreign countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oversee the treasury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of this council were chosen in a lottery </li></ul></ul>

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