TOPICS: 1. Definitions of Culture 2. Ethnicity or Exceptionality 3. Multicultural Bilingual Education 4. How One Thinks About Culture 5. Cultural Pride and Shame
DEFINITIONS OF CULTURE "Cultures are the maps of meaning through which the world is made intelligible." - Peter Jackson
DEFINITIONS OF CULTURE Traditional definition – A shared set of beliefs, traditions, values and goals that define a group, institution or organization
DEFINITIONS OF CULTURE Sociological view of culture - the words, artifacts and symbols which interact with forms of social life Anthropological meaning of culture - “Culture, or civilization, taken in its broad, ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.” - Sir Edward Tylor Romanticist definition of culture – consumption and leisurely activities Cultural studies – the meaning and practices of everyday life
DEFINITIONS OF CULTURESimilarities and Differences All definitions of culture include some description of what people do. What varies is the construction and manifestation of human development
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE Sub culture - A sub culture is a group of people with a culture that sets them apart from the larger, dominant culture to which they belong. Counter culture - is used to describe a group of people who are characterized by their defiance or opposition to the dominant culture. Dominant culture – establishes the rules, language, behaviors, religion and social norms for the society and maintains control of social institutions.
HISTORY OF CULTURE: 18th/19th Century Europe – Culture was an agricultural term used to describe cultivation or improvement. Early 19th Century Europe – Culture came to mean the improvement or development of the individual, primarily through education. Mid 19th Century Europe – Culture was a term used by scientists to refer to universal human capacity. 20th Century – Culture expanded to be an anthropological term that had two meanings: 1. human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols* 2. the unique ways that people living in different parts of the world classified and represented their experiences* *Both definitions include the ability of humans to act creatively After World War II the term culture was adopted by different disciplines, with each discipline uniquely defining culture.
ETHNICITY OR EXCEPTIONALITY How can ethnicity can be mistaken for exceptionality when ones own ethnic group is viewed as setting the standard for all others?
ETHNICITY AN ETHNIC GROUP HAS IN COMMON A historic origin. Identity, heritage and traditions. Value orientations. Behavioral patterns. Political and economic interests.
EXCEPTIONALITY A group sharing a set of specific abilities or disabilities that are especially valued. Requiring special accommodations within a given subculture. A person may be considered exceptional in one ethnic group but not in another.
ETHNICITY OR EXCEPTIONALITYExamples of DifferencesAmong Ethnic Groups Patterns of eye contact Physical contact Use of language Ways of responding to people in positions of authority.
ETHNICITY OR EXCEPTIONALITYWhat one group may see as deviant orunacceptable in their own group might benormal and adaptive in another.We must not mistakenly conclude that astudent has a disability or is gifted just becausehe or she is different.
MULTICULTURAL AND BILINGUAL EDUCATIONWhat are the most important aspects of multicultural and bilingual special education?
MULTICULTURAL AND BILINGUAL EDUCATION Disproportional representation between general population and special education. Adolescents of color are more likely to be identified with disruptive behavior disorders than Caucasian peers. Males living in poverty are more likely to be identified as having a behavior disorder. White, Asian/Pacific Islander and Hispanic students are under represented. Black and American Indian overrepresented.
MULTICULTURAL AND BILINGUAL EDUCATION Acceptance of and respect for those whose culture is different
MULTICULTURAL AND BILINGUAL EDUCATION curricula that provide equal educational opportunities to students regardless of their gender, social class, ethnicity, race, disability, or other cultural identity
MULTICULTURAL AND BILINGUAL EDUCATION Instruction that uses: The students cultural strengths That involves teaching tolerance Appreciation of culture Working with families Improving language instruction For language-minority students, Improving literacy
MULTICULTURAL AND BILINGUAL EDUCATION Culturally appropriate assessment that honors the student’s cultural heritage and does NOT penalize any student
MULTICULTURAL AND BILINGUAL EDUCATION Socialization to multicultural normshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lSPjQsmMqhk&feature=player_embedded
WE NEED TO INCREASE THE UNDERSTANDING OF SUBCULTURES.
MULTICULTURAL AND BILINGUAL EDUCATION Multiculturalism is a very important aspect to the human experience and the advancement of our societies.
MULTICULTURAL AND BILINGUAL EDUCATION Diversity Like Nature The landscape of Earth is an intricate mix of shapes, forms, and colors each with its own identity and spirit, separate, and yet a piece of a whole. The land we live in probably best reflects this notion. The landscape of the United States, a quilt woven of dramatically different terrains, is populated by people equally as unique and diverse. Glancing over the entire country from the Pacific to the Atlantic, you see many different environments coexisting: warm deserts, snowcapped mountains, golden plains, green valleys, lush marshlands, sandy beaches, and bustling cities. All are different, yet one: the United States. No less than its geography, the people who inhabit the United States also exemplify nature’s diversity (De Melendez & Beck, 2007, p. 4).
MULTICULTURAL AND BILINGUAL EDUCATIONEffective multiculturaleducation allows allstudents pride in theirown cultures,understanding andappreciation of differentcultures, and ensuresequal educationalopportunities for allstudents, regardless ofcultural background.
HOW ONE THINKS ABOUT CULTURE We Are All Emigrants Contemporary theory traces the ancestry of mankind to the African continent (National Geographic, 2003). Through DNA we have been able to trace the beginnings of mankind to a tribe in Africa, whose genetic code is most similar to the earliest human remains that we have discovered JOURNEY OF MAN tells the remarkable story (National Geographic, 2003). of the human journey out of Africa and into Based on the biological, the rest of the world, tracing history through anthropological and evidence uncovered in the Y-chromosome of archeological evidence it is man’s DNA. Traversing six continents, the safe to posit that mankind film takes viewers on a fascinating journey began on the content we now call African. From there, into the hidden world of their ancestry and the human race dispersed offers a modern look at our ancestor’s throughout the world. lives(National Geographic, 2003).
HOW ONE THINKS ABOUT CULTURE Civilization brought about city states to govern the people and lands occupied by human migration. Claims of ownership to the inhabited lands emerged. As man politicized the lands, distinct culture emerged based on several factors. A few of these factors are physical environment:• religious beliefs• communication• technology• political organization
HOW ONE THINKS ABOUT CULTURE Once a Melting Pot Now a Salad A unique blend of distinct flavors A melting pot was the metaphor use to describe the assimilation of various emigrant groups arriving in America from the 1800 through the 20th Century. Historically, public education aimed to assimilate emigrants into American society.
HOW ONE THINKS ABOUT CULTURE How we think of culture influences our educational system. Today we celebrate diversity and recognize America as part of a global society.
CULTURAL PRIDE AND SHAMEAfrican Americans are apeople rich in culturethat Includesinnovations in: Art Music Religion Sports TechnologyIn February of eachyear we celebratethe accomplishments ofAfrican Americansin the United States.
CULTURE PRIDE AND SHAME One source of shame is termed as “Self-Hate.” Gang violence, drugs, and the disproportionate number of African American men in the penal system is a reflection of self-hate. There is evidence that the wide spread availability of Crack Cocaine was propagated by United State Government agencies. If these allegations are true, it exposes attempted genocide. Cultural Shamehttp://www.justice.gov/oig/speci al/9712/ch01p1.htm