Repaso de las conjugaciones verbales final salsich


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missing the present indicative, ser vs. estar, verbs like gustar, and reflexives

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Repaso de las conjugaciones verbales final salsich

  2. 2. El pretérito de los verbos regulares
  3. 3. El pretérito- Los irregulares – Ir/Ser, Dar, Ver
  4. 4. El Pretérito de los verbos con cambioortográfico- spelling change verbs of pretérite
  5. 5. Verbos de cambio ortográfico1) verbos de –car, -gar, -zar - cambio en la forma de ‘yo’ solamente - (-car  -qué); ( -gar  -gué); (-zar  -cé) -acentos normales2) Verbos –er/-ir de doble vocal - en las formas de “él, ella, ud” y “ellos, ellas, uds”, la ‘i’ cambia a ‘y’ - acentos sobre todas las formas que tiene ‘i’3) Verbos que terminan en –uir - en las formas de “él, ella, ud” y “ellos, ellas, uds”, la ‘i’ cambia a ‘y’ -acentos regulares
  6. 6. El pretérito-stem-changing verbs
  7. 7. Los verbos de cambio radicalStem-changing verbs of PreteriteVerbos de –ir que tienen cambio radical (stem-change) en el PRESENTE, van a tener un cambioradical en el PRETERITO.Verbos de –AR y –ER NO TIENEN cambio radical en elpretérito.Acentos normalesEl cambio está en tercera persona singular y plural
  8. 8. Los verbos de cambio radicalStem-changing verbs of Preterite-IR verbs that have stem-change in PRESENT, will havestem-change in preterite-AR/-ER DO NOT have stem change in the preterite.Normal accents.Stem -change in the 3rd person singular and pluralStem-change in preterite = 1st vowel from stem-change inpresent tense
  9. 9. El pretérito-Marching song verbs
  10. 10. EL IMPERFECTO The imperfect tense narrates what was going on at a certain time in the past. It often indicates what was happening in the background. Cuando yo era joven, vivía en una ciudad muy grande. Todas las semanas, mis padres y yo íbamos al centro comercial. When I was young, I lived in a big city. Each week, my parents and I went to the mall.Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 3.2–10
  11. 11. Imperfect How to conjugate the imperfect:Used to expressactions that happened 1) Drop off the infinitive endingin the past 2) Add endingsHabitual actions, timeanddate, background, inf If –ar verb add, If –ir/-er verb add,ormation -aba -ábamos -ía -íamosThe beginning or end -abas -abais -ías -íaisof the action is notimportant -aba -aban -ía -ían
  12. 12. Imperfect IrregularsTHERE ARE ONLY 3 IRREGULAR VERBS IN THE IMPERFECT!!! To the tune of “Another Bites the Dust” Ir, Ser, Ver son los verbos irregulares Iba, Era, Veía son las formas irregulares del imperfecto, del imperfecto, son los verbos irregulares
  13. 13. Letra de la segunda canción: ‘No dejes de creer’(To the tune of “Don’t Stop Believing”)The imperfect tense, talking about long agoDifferent than the preterite, which is over and doneThe imperfect tense sets the background of the sceneUsed for time and date and the weatherThe imperfect tense, used for habitual past actions http://zachary-to talk about on-going things that go on and on and on and on…, -abas, -aba, -ábamos, -abais, -aban-ar endings! eo-glee-no-dejes-de-creer--ía, -ías, -ía, -íamos, -íais, -ían preterito-vs-imperfecto/-er/-ir!conocí means “I met”conocía means “I knew”Había una vez is “Once upon a time”Yo supe, “I found out”sabía, “I knew all along”Something, something, something…iba, ibas, iba, íbamos, ibais, ibanThe verb irera, eras, era, éramos, erais, eranThe verb serNo dejes de creerGuarda este sentimientoNo dejes de creero, o, o, oGuarda este sentimientoooooo…
  14. 14. Otros apuntes sobre el imperfecto Imperfect of Hay (there is/are) = Había (there was/were)Expressions often used with IMPERFECT De niño/a – As a child Todos los días - every day Mientras – while Siempre - always
  15. 15. These words and expressions are often used with the imperfect because they express habitual or repeated actions: de niño/a (as a child), todos los días (every day), mientras (while), siempre (always). De niño vivía en un suburbio de Madrid. As a child, I lived in a suburb of Madrid. Todos los días iba a la casa de mi abuela. Every day I went to my grandmother’s house. Siempre escuchaba música mientras corría en el parque. I always listened to music while I ran in the park.Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 3.2–16
  16. 16. The Preterite vs. Imperfect The PreteriteUses of the Preterite–1. The completion of past actions or states.Ex. Anoche llovió( it rained last night).2. The beginning of past actions or states. Ex.Los europeos llegaron a América y impusieronsu religion a los indígenas.3. Specific Event in Time. Ej. Ella nació el 15 dediciembre del año 1995.
  17. 17. The Preterite vs. Imperfect THE IMPERFECTUses of the IMPERFECT-1. What was happening in the past. Ex. Llovía (it was raining) cuandoellos compraron los paraguas.2. Habitual or repeated past actions. Ex. Cuando éramos jovenessiempre jugabámos el fútbol.3. Descriptions…-Of emotions or circumstances. Ex. La situación social era muy difícil.- Of people of characterization of a person. Ex. Se llamaba Luisa; era unachica lista y rebelde.4. Anticipated/Planned past actions( ir in the imperfect + a + verb) Ex.Iba a ir al cine con mis amigos( I was going to go…..).5. Age and Time. Ex. Eran las seis de la mañana. Ex. Tenías seis añoscuando entraste la primaria.
  18. 18. Presente SubjuntivoHow to conjugate the present subjunctive:1) Take the ‘yo’ form of the present tense2) Drop the –O3) Add opposite endingsIf the verb has an irregular stem, then the stem will continue to beirregular in the subjunctive form. Tener – Tenga, Tengas, Tenga, Tengamos, Tengáis, TenganIf there is a stem in the present form of the verb, then the stem willchange in the subjunctive form as well except in the nosotros andvosotros form Volver – Vuelva, Vuelvas, Vuelva, Volvamos, Volváis, Vuelvan
  19. 19. Presente SubjuntivoIf the verb has a spelling change in the present, then the spellingwill change in the subjunctive (-Car, -Gar, -Zar) -Car = c – qu, -Gar = g – gu, -Zar = z – c Buscar – Busque, Busques, Busque, Busquemos, Busquéis, BusquenDISHES (irregulars) Dar – Dé, Des, Dé, Demos, Deis, Den Ir – Vaya, Vayas, Vaya, Vayamos, Vayáis, Vayan Saber – Sepa, Sepas, Sepa, Sepamos, Sepáis, Sepan Haber – Haya, Hayas, Haya, Hayamos, Hayáis, Hayan Estar – Esté, Estés, Esté, Estemos, Estéis, Estén Ser – Sea, Seas, Sea, Seamos, Seáis, Sean
  20. 20. Imperfect Subjunctive ConjugationsHOW TO CONJUGATE:1. Take the “Ellos” form of the preterite tense of the verb2. Take away the “ron” ¡Adiós, Ron!3. Add necessary ending: ra, ras, ra, ramos, rais, ran*For nosotros form, add an accent to the vowel right before the “r”*¡NO IRREGULARS!•Used with conditional, preterite, or the imperfect tense when in the presence ofweirdos, escapa, tal zez, or quizás EXAMPLE: HABLAR•Hablara, hablaras, hablara, habláramos, hablarais, hablaran EXAMPLE: COMER•Comiera, comieras, comiera, comiéramos (accent on the e),comierais,comieran
  21. 21. WEIRDOSAcronym used to remember the Triggers of SUBJUNCTIVE!Formula:{Subject 1 + WEIRDOS}+ que+{subject 2 + subjunctive}= W- Wishing wantingE-EmotionI-Impersonal ExpressionsR-ReactionsD-DoubtO-OjaláS-Searching (buscar)DON’T FORGET: You must have a Subject change!!Example: Espero que tú tengas un buen día.Triggers for indicative/ when it is not subjunctive! REALTENSES! USE FOR CERTAINTY, WEIRDOS=doubtishness
  22. 22. Tal Vez and Quizás Tal Vez and Quizás = Perhaps, maybe Tal vez and quizás are triggers for the present or past subjunctive. Depends on context. No subject change is necessary. DO NOT USE QUE with Tal vez and Quizás! EXAMPLES: Tal vez Adhana fuera al chapel ayer. Quizás llueva mañana.
  23. 23. Presente del Subjunctive VS. Imperfecto del Subjuntivo*Remember both must be used with either with escapa, orweirdos and there must be a SUBJECT change betweenclauses*With quizás and tal vez there is no subject changebecause there is only one clause. ex: Tal vez Nailah vaya a la casa de Susan Smith este verano.Presente del Subjunctivo is used with the present or futuretensesImperfecto del Subjunction is used with conditional,preterite, or imperfect tenses.
  24. 24. ESCAPA“ESCAPA” is an acronym used to remember the Triggers of the Subjunctive form; theyare similar to WEIRDOS.ESCAPA is used because the information that follows is not necessarily real; it is simplyimplied. ESCAPA will always be followed by the subjunctive when there is a subjectchange.You use the subjunctive after the following triggers:E- En caso de que- In case ofS- Sin Que- WithoutC- Con tal de que- Provided thatA- A menos que- UnlessP- Para Que- So thatA- Antes de que- BeforeEXAMPLES:Ella ayuda a sus alumnos con tal de que ellos presten atencion. - She will help him provided that they pay attentionMarta no ira a menos que tu la acompanes -Marta will not go unless you accompany her
  25. 25. EL FUTURO – The futureUsed to talk about what WILLhappen.Used to make polite requests.Ejemplos: Ellos irán a la playa. – They will go to the beach. Yo te prepararé algo de comer. – I will prepare you something to eat.
  26. 26. El condicional – The conditional• Used to talk about what WOULD happen, under certain conditions.Ejemplos: Ellos irían a la playa. – They would go to the beach. Yo te prepararía algo de comer. – I would prepare you something to eat.
  27. 27. The Present Perfect TenseThe present perfect tense = haber in the present+ past participle Ella ya ha visitado DC. – She has already visited DC. HOW TO FORM THE PRESENT PERFECT  Used to talk about what has Step 1 happened in the past or recent past. Conjugate haber in present tense:  Used to talk about specific events in Yo  he Tu  has the past that still have relevance in the Él, Ella, Usted  ha future. Nosotros(as)  hemos Vosotros(as)  habéis  The adverbs ‘ya’ y ‘todavía’ are often Ellos, Ellas, Ustedes  han used with present and pluperfect. ‘Ya’ means ‘already’, ‘todavía’ means still. Step 2 Drop the infinitive ending –ar, -er, -ir  Ejemplos: Add –ado to -ar verbs and –ido to both –er -Ella ha estado enferma. & –ir verbs Examples: hablado, comido, vivido -She has been sick -Tú ya has comido el almuerzo. Watch out because there are irregular past particples -You have already eaten.
  28. 28. El Pluscamperfecto/The pluperfectThe pluperfect tense = haber in the imperfect + past participle Ella ya había visitado DC. – She had already visited DC. The pluperfect describes a past HOW TO FORM THE PLUPERFECT action that was completed Step 1 before another past action Conjugate haber in the imperfect: Yo  había The adverb ‘ya’ is often used Tu  habías with present and pluperfect. Él, Ella, Usted  había Nosotros (as)  habíamos ‘Ya’ means ‘already’. Vosotros (as)  habíais Examples: Ellos, Ellas, Ustedes  habían-El partido ya había empezado cuando Step 2algunos jugadores llegaron. Drop the infinitive ending –ar, -er, -ir-The game had already begun when Add –ado to -ar verbs and –ido to both –er & –ir verbssome of the players arrived Examples: hablado, comido, vivido Watch out because there are irregular past particples
  29. 29. Irregulars Particples of the Present Perfect Abrir  abierto Cubrir  cubierto NOTE: For -er and -ir double Descubrir  descubierto vowel verbs, a written accent Morir  muerto will be required. Volver  vuelto Poner  puesto Examples: Escribir  escrito • Creer  creído Decir dicho • Leer  leído Imprimir impreso, • Traer  traído imprimido • Oír  oído Freir  frito, freído • Caer  caído Romper  roto Ver  visto Hacer  hecho
  30. 30. ACRONYM TO REMEMBER IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLESR rotoE escritoV vistoV vueltoM muertoA abiertoC cubiertoP puestoH hechoD dichoD devuelto
  31. 31. Past Participles as adjectives  Past participles can be used as part of a compound verb tense (i.e. present perfect or pluperfect tenses) or as an adjective.  When they are used as an adjective, they must agree in gender and number with the noun the noun that it is describing.How to form past particples: drop the infinitive ending (-ar, -er, -ir) add -ado (for -ar verbs) or -ido (for -er, -ir verbs).Ejemplos: hablar - ar + ado = hablado comer - er + ido = comido vivir - ir + ido = vivido****For verbs with double vowels (i.e. creer), add an accent to the second vowel (i.e. creído).
  32. 32. Past Participles as adjectivesIrregulars abrir (to open) - abierto (open) Past participles must agree in gender and cubrir (to cover) - cubierto (covered) decir (to say) - dicho (said) number with the noun it is describing. escribir (to write) - escrito (written) La puerta está cerrada. freír (to fry) - frito (fried) The door is closed. hacer (to do) - hecho (done) Las puertas están cerradas. morir (to die) - muerto (dead) The doors are closed. poner (to put) - puesto (put) El restaurante está abierto. resolver (to resolve) - resuelto (resolved) The restaurant is open. romper (to break) - roto (broken) Los restaurantes están abiertos. ver (to see) - visto (seen) The restaurants are open. volver (to return) - vuelto (returned) Componer (to compose) – compuesto (composed) **An example of a past participle not being used Describir (to describe) – descrito (described) as an adjective: Devolver (to return) - devuelto (returned) Oír (to hear) – oído (heard) Los estudiantes han estudiado español. Creer (to believe) – creído (believed) Ellas habían visto las películas.
  33. 33. Direct Objectsme noste oslo/la los/lasTake the place of nouns that receive the action of the verband answer the question what or who in relation to theverb. Not used when the noun is present.Place before the noun or attach to an infinitive for bothI.O. and D.O.Ex. I have the check  Tengo el cheque  Lo tengo
  34. 34. Indirect Objectsme nos *le and les become sete os Before a D.O.le* les*I.O. pronoun always comes before D.O. pronounPronoun is always used whenever there is an indirectobject, an indirect object answers the question to/forwhom is the action of the verb done.Ex. 1 Nobody sends her cookies  Nadie le manda galletasEx. 2 Nobody sends her them  Nadie se las manda
  35. 35. Cláusulas con “si”Used to express contrary-to-fact conditions Si + Imperfect subjunctive + Conditional Si tengo tiempo iré al cine  If I have time, then I will go to the moviesSi clauses conform to a specific sequence 0f tensesMain Clause Si Clause Future, present indicative Present indicative Conditional  Imperfect subjunctive Imperfect indicative  imperfect indicativeSi + Present indicative + Future