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Pakistan-UN Relations

Pakistan-UN Relations



Prepared by students of IBA for International Relations Course

Prepared by students of IBA for International Relations Course



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    Pakistan-UN Relations Pakistan-UN Relations Presentation Transcript

    • Pakistan – United Nations Relations
      From the top
    • Emergence of Pakistan
      14th August 1947
      30th September 1947
      Afghanistan’s sole vote in opposition to Pakistan’s admission.
    • Water Dispute
    • Causes of the dispute
      Steps taken:
      Interim agreement on May 4th 1948
      Approached the World Bank in 1952
      Indus Water Treaty 1960
    • Terms of the IWT
      Pakistan – Indus, Jhelum, Chenab
      India – Sutlej, Ravi, Beas
      Ten years of uninterrupted water supply
      Dams financed by:
      WB loans
      Compensation money from India
    • Rising concerns
    • Baglihar Dam – Initiated in 1990s and inaugurated on October 10, 2008
      1 of the 67 projects underway
      Steps taken:
      Formal notice in 2003
      Approached WB in 2005
      Verdict in 2007
    • Peacekeeping Missions
    • Define: Peacekeeping Missions
      Unique and dynamic instrument
      1st PK mission in 1948
      Currently: 63 PK missions
      Goals of PK missions:
      Maintain Ceasefires
      Use of military observers
      Lightly armed troops
    • Kashmir issue
      By: SehrishNayyer
    • Kashmir : the oldest dispute in UN agenda
      The Kashmir dispute is the oldest unresolved international conflict in the world today.
      India's forcible occupation of the State of Jammu and Kashmir in 1947 is the main cause of the dispute.
      India claims to have ‘signed' a controversial document, the Instrument of Accession, on 26 October 1947 with the Maharaja of Kashmir
    • UN Ceasefire
      Indo-Pakistan war of 1947:
      This is also called the First Kashmir War.
      The United Nations was invited by India to mediate the quarrel.
      The UN mission insisted that the opinion of the Kashmiris must be ascertained.
      The UN Security Council passed Resolution 47 on 21 April 1948. The war ended in December 1948 with the Line of Control dividing Kashmir into territories administered by Pakistan (northern and western areas) and India (southern, central and northeastern areas).
    • The Disputed Territory : Shown in green is Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. The orange-brown region represents Indian-controlled Jammu and Kashmir while the Aksai Chin is under Chinese occupation.
    • United Nations Military Observer Group In India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)
      Mission facts
      Location: The ceasefire line between India and Pakistan in the State of Jammu and Kashmir
      Headquarters: Islamabad (November-April) / Srinagar (May-October)
      Duration:January 1949 to present
    • In January 1948, the Security Council adopted resolution 39 (1948) , establishing the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) to investigate and mediate the dispute.
      In April 1948, by its resolution 47 (1948) , the Council decided various measures including the use of observers to stop the fighting.
      The first team of unarmed military observers, which eventually formed the nucleus of the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP), arrived in the mission area in January 1949 to supervise, in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, the ceasefire between India and Pakistan and to assist the Military Adviser to UNCIP.
      On 30 March 1951, following the termination of UNCIP, the Security Council, by its resolution 91 (1951) decided that UNMOGIP should continue to supervise the ceasefire in Jammu and Kashmir.
    • UNMOGIP's functions were to observe and report, investigate complaints of ceasefire violations and submit its finding to each party and to the Secretary-General.
      At the end of 1971, hostilities broke out again between India and Pakistan.
      When a ceasefire came into effect on 17 December 1971, a number of positions on both sides of the 1949 ceasefire line had changed hands.
      In July 1972, India and Pakistan signed an agreement defining a Line of Control in Kashmir which, with minor deviations, followed the same course as the ceasefire line established by the Karachi Agreement in 1949.
      Following renewed hostilities of 1971, UNMOGIP has remained in the area to observe developments pertaining to the strict observance of the ceasefire of 17 December 1971 and report thereon to the Secretary-General.
    • Completed Peacekeeping Operations Of UN
    •  GOAL : Itwas established to supervise the ceasefire along the India-Pakistan border (except in the State of Jammu and Kashmir )and the withdrawal of all armed personnel to the positions held by them before 5 August 1965. After the withdrawal of the troops by India and Pakistan had been completed, UNIPOM was terminated
      Location Of Operation: Along the India-Pakistan border between Kashmir and the Arabian Sea
      Headquarters: Lahore (Pakistan)/Amritsar (India)
      Duration: September 1965 - March 1966
      Chief Officer: Major-General B.F. Macdonald (Canada)
      • Principalities of Jammu and Kashmir in the Himalayas continued to give
      • rise to numerous border conflicts.
      • Between October 1947 and January 1949, there were battles in Kashmir between Indian and Pakistani troops: the first India-Pakistan war
      • The Security Council resolution on 21 April 1948 which called upon both parties to implement a ceasefire
      • Formation of a military observer mission, UNMOGIP (United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan),to oversee the observance of that ceasefire from January 1949 onwards.
    • The UN mandate, the tasks and the organization of UNIPOM
      • The second India-Pakistan war
      • Resolution 211 of 20 September 1965, the Security Council called for a new ceasefire and asked Secretary-General U Thant "to provide the necessary assistance to ensure supervision of the ceasefire and withdrawal of all armed personnel"
      • India and Pakistan agreed to a ceasefire, which took effect on 22 September
      • The ceasefire in Jammu and Kashmir themselves was overseen by UNMOGIP
      • The ceasefire in the India-Pakistan border region from Kashmir to the
      Arabian Sea coast was overseen by the new United Nations India-Pakistan Observation Mission (UNIMPOM)
      • UNIPOM observers on the ground were divided into two groups, one for each side of the border.
      • It divided its mission area into seven sectors, manned fourteen
      field stations along the confrontation line. Where the station's location largely determined the nature of the observers' activities
      • The arrangements were made by the observers in respect of the outermost
      boundary to which Indian or Pakistani military personnel could patrol in certain areas also had a preventive effect
      • During the first few weeks, India and Pakistan did not make a good job of sticking to the ceasefire agreements
      • At the request of India and Pakistan, UNIPOM was extended by three
      months in December 1965
      • At the beginning of January 1966, the Soviet Union invited both parties to Tashkent to seek a solution to the conflict
      • On 10 January, India and Pakistan announced publicly that they were prepared to withdraw all military personnel back to the position they had been in before 5 August 1965
      • This withdrawal completed by 25 February
      • UNIPOM supervised the implementation of the Tashkent agreement and the mission was, as agreed, terminated on 22 March 1966.
      In 1979, Soviet forces entered Afghanistan.
      UNGA deplored the armed intervention and called for immediate withdrawal of Soviet troops.
      UN Undersecretary General visited the region in 1981.
      Held extensive discussions with the Governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
      Both parties accepted his four point agenda that started the negotiating process.
    • Geneva negotiations
      Undersecretary General acted as an intermediary in a series of negotiations between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
      The conclusion of Geneva Accords was expedited by Soviet Government desire to withdraw its forces.
      In Feb 1988 Soviet announced that it would start withdrawing its troops in May.
      In April 1988, Undersecretary General announced that settlement had been finalized.
    • Four points of Geneva Accords
      Non-interference and Non-intervention.
      A declaration of International guarantees.
      Return of refugees
      Interrelationship for the settlement of situations relating to Afghanistan.
    • Mandate of UNGOMAP
      Mandate of UNGOMAP was derived from the Accords.
      Included the monitoring of:
      Non-interference and non-intervention by parties in each other’s affairs.
      Return of refugees
      Withdrawal of Soviet forces.
    • UNGOMAP Deployed
      Accords were signed on 14th April 1988 and UNSC confirmed its agreements and measures.
      50 military observers from ten different countries were appointed in the mission.
      Headquarters were established in Kabul and Islamabad
    • Monitoring the Withdrawal
      Soviet forces were present in 17 of the 30 provinces and controlled 18 main garrisons on 14th May,1988.
      UNGOMAP developed a map indicating
      the location of garrisons
      route to be used
      crossing points on border that troops would use.
    • Two phases of withdrawal
      In first phase on 15th Aug 1988, 50% of the soviet troops had been withdrawn by air and land.
      In second phase on 12th Feb the remaining garrisons had been evacuated.
      UNGOMAP visited the garrisons.
      Confirmed that withdrawal had been done in accordance with the stipulations of fourth instrument of Geneva Accords.
    • Non-intervention and Non-interference
      Numerous complaints of intervention were lodged by both parties.
      Outposts were established in Peshawar and Quetta to carry out investigations
      Nature of the terrain and security conditions prevailing in the area hampered the work of inspection teams.
    • Voluntary return of refugees
      UNGOMAP maintained close relationship with UNHCR.
      UNGOMAP monitored the situation inside Afghanistan and informed UNHCR of the safety conditions for the return of refugees.
      Up to 5 mn refugees were living in Pakistan and Iran.
      Only a limited number of refugees could return because fighting continued in Afghanistan.
    • Termination of UNGOMAP
      Duration of UNGOMAP mandate envisaged in Accord was 20 month after May,1988.
      UNSC extended the UNGOMAP mandate for two months because return of refugees was not completed.
      UNGOMAP mandate formally ended on 15th March, 1990.
    • Conclusion
      Mujahideen resistance were neither party to the negotiations nor to the Geneva Accords.
      They refused to accept the terms of agreement.
      As a result civil war continued during and after the withdrawal which posed difficulties for UNGOMAP.
    • Pakistan’s Military Contribution to the UN
      Peacekeeping Missions Involving Pakistan
      Presented by:
      RaafayHaider Khan
    • Completed Missions
      Congo (1960 – 1964)
      West New Guinea (1962 – 1963)
      Kuwait (1991 – 1993)
      Haiti (1993 – 1996)
      Cambodia (1992 – 1993)
      Bosnia (1992 – 1996)
      Somalia (1992 – 1996)
      Sierra Leone (1999 – 2005)
      Current Deployment
      Democratic Republic of Congo (1999 – Present)
      Liberia (2003 – Present)
      Burundi (2004 – Present)
      Cote d’Ivoire (2004 – Present)
      Sudan (2005 – Present)
      At a Glance…
    • UN peacekeeping force in Congo, est. after UNSC resolution 143 (July 14th 1960)
      Sent in during the Congo Crisis
      Logistic support
      Organized by ASC
      Contribution: 400 troops, Ordnance, Transport Units, and Staff Personnel
      Zero Casualties
      Operation of the United Nations in Congo (August 1960 to May 1964)
    • Congo?
    • Exclusive responsibility of United Nations Temporary Executive Authority given to Pakistan
      Pakistani Composite force: 14 Punjab Regiment, two companies of 18 Punjab Regiment
      Prevented skirmishes b/w Papuans and Indonesian troops
      Chinese Premier Chou-En-Lai said,
      “The only example in United Nation’s history, when a United Nation military force had gone in, performed its role honestly and came out, was Pakistan’s military contingent to Indonesia.”
      Contribution: 1,500 Troops
      Zero Casualties
      United Nations Security Force in New Guinea (October 1962 - April 1963)
    • New Guinea?
    • Est. on April 9th ,1991 after the Gulf War (Res. 689)
      Kuwait – extreme post war problems
      Pak offered services for land reclamation
      Was assigned the most difficult are (North)
      Contribution:1,136 troops and civilians
      Zero Casualties
      United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (December 1991 to October 1993)
    • Est. during 1991 coup and military rule in Haiti
      PAKBAT (March 1995)
      Patrolling North, Northeast, and Central regions of Cape Haitien
      Significant role in holding free and fair elections
      Earned goodwill
      Pakistan School
      Mr. Enerique ter Horst, UNSC’s special representative in Haiti said,
      “since the arrival of Pakistan Battalion in Haiti the United Nations has realized that Pakistan Army is not only a formidable fighting force but peace keepers and peace builders in the best sense of the word. The way in which they have participated in the reconstruction and humanitarian assistance programmes beyond the call of duty to ensue stable environment, makes me confident that United Nations shall very soon attain the objectives of its mission in Haiti.”
      Contribution : 525 Troops
      Zero Casualties
      United Nations Mission in Haiti (1993 to 1996)
    • Haiti?
    • 2nd Battalion Azad Kashmir Regiment dispatched
      Carried out peacekeeping operations with great professionalism
      Hearts and Minds
      Tremendous goodwill towards peacekeepers
      Contribution: 1,106 troops, mine clearance, and staff
      Zero Casualties
      United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (March 1992 to November 1993)
    • Cambodia?
    • Pakistan sent two battalions on UN request, PAKBAT-1 & PAKBAT-2, to Bosnia and Croatia in May 1994
      Carried out tasks with total commitment
      Managed and coordinated unforeseen events
      Contribution: 3,000 troops
      Casualties: 6
      United Nations Protection Forces in Bosnia (March 1992 to February 1996)
    • Bosnia?
    • Pakistan first to respond to UN call
      Initiated mission in Mogadishu with 500 soldiers (14 September 1992)
      Enlargement scale and scope of mission – cumulative force increased to 37,000
      UNISOM – 1 became UNITAF
      Olympic Hotel Incident
      Major General Thomas M. Montgomery, Deputy Commander of the United Nations Forces in Somalia in a television interview said,
      “Many of the soldiers are alive today because of the willingness and skill of the Pakistani soldiers who worked jointly in a rescue operation with Malaysian and American soldiers in most difficult and dangerous combat circumstances." He thanked the people and Pakistan Army for sending, "such splendid soldiers to Somalia who we feel proud to serve with. Pakistani soldiers have been completely dependable even in the most difficult circumstances. They have shouldered a huge and dangerous load for UNOSOM and the Somali people.“
      Contribution: 7,200 troops
      Casualties: 39
      United Nations Operation in Somalia I (March 1992 to February 1996)
    • Somalia?
    • Force of 17,500 was gathered under res. 1346
      Pakistan largest contributor – sent composite force of three battalion groups and one engg. Battalion
      The whole force was lead by Pakistani Commander SajjadAkram from October 2003 to September 2005
      Contribution: 5,000 troops
      Casualties: 6
      United Nations mission in Sierra Leone (October 1999 to December 2005)
    • Sierra Leone?
    • Pakistan is currently the most contributing nation to the peacekeeping missions of the UN
      Has 10,175 troops serving in current missions
      Pakistan/ Pakistan Army has therefore developed strong relations with many UN members
      Current Deployment/ Conclusion
    • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Pakistan
    • Historical Background
      • Late 1970s Afghans seek sanctuary in Pakistan
      • Spring 1979 – Pakistan asks help from UNHCR
      • First assistance agreement was signed in November 1979
      • From 1979 to 1990 – 3.3 million registered refugees
      • 1985 – around 300 refugee camps
      • The camps received monthly rationed food from World Food Programme
      • UNHCR provided – shelter, healthcare, education and vocational training
      • UNHCR and Govt created a network of 650 primary schools.
      • A commisionerate for Afghan Refugees was established
      • Each provincial commissioner was assisted by district administrators.
      • By 1986 estimated 9000 Pakistanis were helped in refugee administrations
    • UNHCR's Main Objectives in Pakistan
      • Assisting Afghan refugees to return home
      • Provide protection and assistance to Afghan refugees in their camps and settlements in the areas of health, education, water and sanitation
      • Identify solutions for non-Afghan refugees in Pakistan
      • Resettle in a third country a limited number of Afghan refugees
    • Helping Refugee Women
      • UNHCR promotes women committees in refugee camps
      Non-Afghan Refugees in Pakistan
      • 650 non-afghans recognized as refugees
      • More than 1000 non-afghans seeking asylum
      • Mainly Somalis, Iraqis and Iranians
      • Under an agreement in 2003 UNHCR recognized non-afghan refugees were allowed to work.
    • Key Targets for 2010
      • Some 150,000 refugees repatriate voluntarily from Pakistan
      • Under the RIPAC project, Smart cards are issued to Afghans
      • Up to 30 projects are implemented under the RAHA initiative
      • Continue to provide humanitarian assistance to people of concern through registration
      • More effective safety measures enhance staff security.
      • UNHCR has a total budget of 176,687,665 USD for the year 2010
    • WHO in Pakistan
    • There are five programme areas:
      Communicable Diseases - Tuberculosis Control - Malaria Control - Polio Eradication Initiative
      Primary Health Care/Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health - Primary health care - Maternal and newborn care - Sustainable Development
      Health Promotion - Mental health - Non-communicable diseases - Health of Elderly - Tobacco free initiatives - Food safety and nutrition
      Health System Development
      Emergency Preparedness and Response
      • In 1993 WHO introduced the DOTS strategy for the effective treatment of Tuberculosis. 
      • 1995 – DOTS was implemented
      • Treatment success rate reached 86 %
      • At present Pakistan is a member of WHO Global Roll Back Malaria (RBM)
      • WHO provides technical and financial support to RBM
      • Objectives of RBM programmes: - To reduce malaria morbidity by the end of year 2010 - To reduce malaria mortality to minimum - To prevent and control malaria outbreaks
      • Elimination of Malaria 1960s and Resurgence 1970s
      • The Basic Development Needs (BDN) initiative was launched in 1995 with WHO support
      • Dec 2008 – 127 NGOs, 731 Village developmental committees, 107 community citizen boards, 15 health committees, 26 women organizations and 58 youth groups were functional in 9 BDN districts
      • WHO provided technical support to nutritional wing of MOH
      • WHO build pre-engineered insulated and air conditioned warehouses in DHQ Hospitals of eight flood affected districts in 2008