In order to further enhance their economic cooperation and bilateral trade, bothIran and Pakistan have declared two of their border regions as ‘twin provinces’ intheir recent agreement. An agreement to this effect was signed by Governor of Iran’sSistan-Baluchistan province, Hussein Amini and his counterpart from Pakistan’sSouthwest Baluchistan province, Owais Ghani.45 After signing the agreement, bothgovernors addressed a joint press conference where Amini said, “we will not allowthe criminal elements to use Iranian land for any activity against Pakistan and expectsame from it.”46 Ghani said, “the declaration of two Baluchistans as twin cities willfurther improve the trade, economic and cultural ties between the two countries.”47It reflects from the nature and kind of the agreement that both Iran and Pakistan haveattempted to integrate geographically divided people through exchange of trade andother means. Moreover, both countries have tried to address their security concernsand trade related issues through integration of the two provinces. The declaration ofthe ‘twin provinces’ would have large political and social ramifications.QUETTA Nov 22 (PPI): Balochistan Governor Owais Ahmad Ghani and Governor General of Sistan province of Iran AqaiHosseinAmini have said that there exist vast opportunities for trade between the two provinces of Iran and Pakistan. They were addressing a joint Press conference after signing historic agreement of declaring the Balochistan and Sistan as twin provinces here Monday. Governor OwaisGhani said that objective of Iranian delegation is to enhance relations between two brotherly provinces with special focus on trade between them. He said our delegation would also visit Zahidan afterwards and our … 2004
While Saudi Arabia has shied away from a direct acquisition of nuclear weapons (possibly till such time Iran’s nuclear arsenal becomes overt), plans exist for contingency provision of nuclear weapons by Pakistan to Saudi Arabia
Both countries intelligence work together to point 5-ISI working together
Manmohan Singh visited India in February 2010increasing warmth and bilateral relations between both countries*IRONIC GESTURE-monarch invited on republic day of democratic country*India's energy needs,both have terrorism as main threat
OIC- Organization Of The Islamic Conference<br />The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization grouping fifty-six States<br />established in Rabat, Morocco when the First meeting of the leaders of the Islamic world was held in this city in the wake of the criminal arson perpetrated on 21 August 1969 by Zionist elements against Al-Aqsa Mosque, in occupied Jerusalem.<br />It was to defend the honour and with liberating Jerusalem and Al-Aqsa from Zionist occupation.<br />
Headquarters- Jeddah<br />has affiliate organizations such as the Islamic Bank <br />Charter of the Organization was adopted, whose purpose is to strengthen solidarity and cooperation among Islamic States in the political, economic, cultural, scientific and social fields. <br />Within the OIC system there are countries such as Brunei, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and other gulf countries which are capital-rich, <br />And there are countries such as Egypt, Indonesia, Pakistan and Turkey which have scientifically oriented and trained manpower.<br />
PAKISTAN’S role in the OIC<br />Pakistan was a founding member of the OIC in 1969. <br />Pakistan has played an important role in strengthening cooperation among Muslim States by its active participation in the programmes and activities of the OIC. <br />Pakistan is the Chairman of the OIC Standing Committee on Scientific and Technological Cooperation (COMSTECH) which has its Headquarters in Islamabad.<br />Pakistan also host the Secretariat of the Islamic Chamber of Commerce and Industry( ICCI). The Office of the OIC's Secretary General's Special Representative on Afghanistan is based in Islamabad.<br />
Pakistan is the Chairman of the Council and the Executive Committee of the Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States (PUOICM).<br />Mr.. Sharif-ud-Din Pirzada a noted Lawyer and a former Foreign Minister of Pakistan served as the Secretary General of the OIC from 1984 to 1988 . <br />The Headquarters of the Islamic Telecommunication Union would also be established in Islamabad. <br />
Summits hosted by PAKISTAN<br />Pakistan hosted the second Islamic Summit Conference in Lahore on 22nd to 24th February 1974. <br />Pakistan also hosted the Second Conference of the OIC Foreign Ministers (ICFM) held in Karachi from 26th to 28 December 1970, Eleventh ICFM in Islamabad from 17th to 22nd May 1980 and the Twenty-first ICFM held in Karachi on 25th to 29th April 1993.<br />The Special Sessions of the OIC Foreign Ministers Conference in 1980 and in 1994 were also held in Pakistan.<br />To commemorate Fifty years of the Independence of Pakistan an Extra-ordinary Session of the Islamic Summit was held in Islamabad on 23rd March 1997. <br />
PAKISTAN’s Relations <br />The efforts by Pakistan have received due acknowledgment in the OIC signified by its membership of all key OIC's Specialized Committees and Contact Groups on critical issues of the Islamic world - Palestine, Afghanistan, Jammu & Kashmir, Bosnia, Kosovo and Sahel. <br />PAKISTAN and Palestine- Pakistan supports the rights of Palestinians and the establishment of an independent State, with Al Quds Al Sharif as its capital. <br />Pakistan and Bosnia- Pakistan supported Bosnia. <br />Pakistan and OIC have not recognized kosovo.<br />
In 1974 OIC was able to resolve the conflict between Pakistan and the newly independent Bangladesh.<br />India has shown an interest in joining the OIC as an observer nation Pakistan have blocked India's inclusion into the OIC, arguing India's inclusion in OIC is against the rules of OIC, which state that an aspirant should not have an ongoing conflict with a member state.<br />OIC supports Pakistan on Kashmir-The Ministers from Saudi Arabia and Turkey and the Advisor from Niger, in their respective statements, reiterated their support for the right to self-determination of the people of Jammu and Kashmir.<br />The OIC Contact Group on Jammu and Kashmir meeting in Tajikistan<br />The Meeting of the OIC Contact Group on Jammu and Kashmir in OIC Summit Conference at Kuala Lumpur on Oct 2003<br />
Report of the OIC Contact Group on Jammu and Kashmir<br />Calls for a peaceful settlement of the Jammu and Kashmir dispute in accordance with relevant UN Resolutions<br />Condemns the massive human rights violations being committed by the Indian forces <br />Calls upon India to put an end to its repressive policies <br />Urges the international community <br />Calls upon India to to accept the strengthening of the UNMOGIP and provide it full support<br />Deplores the restrictions imposed by India on the freedom of travel of the leaders of the All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC),<br />
The ideal organisation?<br />Kashmir issue not solved <br />The OIC must tell the Obama Administration that if it cares for democracy in Afghanistan, it must also care for democracy in Kashmir.<br />Also in 1978 the OIC had adopted a resolution not to allow the stationing of foreign troops on their soil, to be used against another member state. But within years some member states broke that commitment.<br />
Pakistan and OIC<br />11 Sept. 2001-present<br />
Foreign Policy Challenges since 9/11<br />Globalization; interdependence.<br />Multi-lateralism; Fading concept of sovereignty.<br />Supra and inter-governmentalism.<br />Loss of identity.<br />Increased attention to Non-state Actors and the Fourth World.<br />War against terror-War against Islam?<br />
Pakistan’s Role in OIC since 9/11<br />Recognition of Israel (2003)<br />Chairmanship of OIC (2004-2007).<br />2004 Cartoon Controversy and Islamophobia.<br />Role in War against Terror.<br />2005 UNSC reform debate.<br />
34th Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers (ICFM) in 2007.<br />37th ICFM in Dushanbe.<br />2008 Kosovan declaration of independence.<br />2008 criticism on Dutch film; Fitna<br />Recent Facebook criticism.<br />
Pakistan’s Expectations from OIC<br />Positive influence in dispute with India.<br />Ideological convergence; the voice of all Muslims around the globe.<br />A regional organization on the European Union model.<br />A strategically placed regional market.<br />
Criticism at OIC<br />Pakistani front to wage propaganda war against India.<br />Double standards in membership criteria.<br />No universal character.<br />Nominal voice in intl. arena.<br />Israel-phobic Organization.<br />Lack of coherence, discipline, unity and congruence of interests among members.<br />Failures: Egypt Ostracizing, Iraq’s support in Iran-Iraq War, stationing of foreign troops.<br />“OH I SEE!!”<br />
Evaluation<br />Early successes in Conflict Resolution between Jordan and PLO (1970), Pakistan and Bangladesh (1974)<br />2nd largest inter-governmental organization.<br />Permanent delegation to U.N.<br />U.S to establish an envoy to OIC-2007<br />Sole representative body of the entire Muslim Ummah.<br />Recent Reforms.<br />Obama’s recent offer for co-operation with OIC.<br />Recent Saudi attempt at getting India in the organization.<br />
EARLY YEARS<br />Parosi Mulk !!!!<br />Iran - first state to extend recognition to Pakistan <br />The Shah of Iran visited Pakistan in March 1950 <br />A Treaty of Friendship was signed.<br />CENTO (Central Treaty Organization)<br />RCD ECO<br />The Shah supported Pakistan In Indo-Pak war 1965<br />Suppressed rebel movement in Baluchistan(s) together<br />Pakistan mediated between Iran and China and saved the relationship from collapse.<br />
1979 Islamic Revolution and Soviet Intervention<br />The GoooooD :<br />Pakistan was the first country to recognize the Islamic Revolution in Iran, a very difficult decision.<br />Pakistan gave material support to Iran during Iran-Iraq war.<br />President Khomeini's official visit to Pakistan in February 1986<br />Zia stoutly rejected Bush’s plan that the US would help Pakistan train some Afghan Mujahidin in Baluchistan to destabilize Iran as well.<br />
The Baaaaaaaaad :<br />The fall of US best friend the Shah <br />Pakistan - the new US ally!<br />Pakistan supported Taliban<br />Iran supported Northern Alliance<br />Iran voted against Pakistan’s resolution in UN<br />With the removal of the Taliban, Pak Iran tensions over Afghanistan have decreased<br />Iran’s role in facilitating the re-entry of the Indian factor in Afghanistan<br />Sadiq Ganji, an Iranian diplomat, was assassinated on sectarian grounds in Lahore in 1991- eight other followed!<br />Pakistani Shiasdied thoroughout the 1990s – Iran deeply concerned!<br />
VERY SUPPORTIVE !!<br />Iran had expressed its support when Pakistan’s PM Nawaz Sharif raised his concern with about India’s nuclear tests.<br />Iran hailed Pakistan’s nuclear tests of May 28-30, 1998.<br />Iran’s Foreign Minister, Kamal Kharrazi was the first congratulate Pakistan on its nuclear achievement<br />Khatami’s visit in 2002<br />
SKEPTICISM……<br />While Pakistan is a partner in us-led coalition against terrorism in Afghanistan, Iran was placed on the us list of axis of evil in Jan 2003<br />Pakistan is skeptical of increased indo-Iran trade and defense relations<br />In 2004 Iran mediated between India and Pakistan when tensions escalated.<br />
PRESENT CONDITIONS<br />JUNDULLAH !!!!<br />Iran's Deputy Foreign Minister Hassan Qashqavi said that the Pakistani government should take serious measures to stem terrorist activities across the borderline of the two countries.<br />February 2010, Mirza and Larijani called for the expansion of ties between Pakistan and Iran in the political, economic, and cultural spheres.<br />
DOVES AND HAWKS <br />Diplomats like Foreign Minister Manoucheher Muttaki and nuclear negotiator Ali Larijani emphasized the need for closer ties<br />But others like former president Hashmi Rafsanjani and A.N.S. Khamoushi, chief of the Iranian Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Mines, were less reticent.<br />Pakistan cannot afford to have enemies on both sides!!<br />
Economic Ties With Iran<br />Creation of Economic Cooperation Organization (formerly RCD) in 1985 led to growth of Iran-Pakistan strategic partnership.<br />Pakistan-Iran Joint Economic Commission was established in 1986.<br />Khatami visited Islamabad in 2002 and signed several agreements including Bilateral Trade Agreement and Bilateral Agreement on Cooperation in Plant Protection and Quarantine <br />Trade between Pakistan and Iran was barely $500m during 2005, but was an improvement from earlier times<br />Pakistan and Iran signed a Preferential Trade Agreement in 2004.<br />
Economic Ties<br />In 2008, Iran agreed to finance an energy project in Pakistan worth $60m to import 1000MW electricity.<br />International Freight Rail Line worth $20Bn from Islamabad to Istanbul via Tehran. Agreement signed in 2009.<br />Iran-Pakistan-India Gas Pipeline – talks began in 1994.<br />India has quit the IPI deal but Iran and Pakistan signed their first gas deal in February 2010.<br />The volume of Indo-Iran trade is higher than Pak-Iran trade<br />From the data available 2000 onwards, it is visible that the Balance of Trade has always been in favour of Iran. <br />
Defence Cooperation<br />Defence Cooperation is one of the most important component in Iran – Pakistan relations<br />Pakistan – Iran Defence Agreement was signed in July 1989.<br />Iran involved in joint production of Pakistani Al-Khalid tanks.<br />Iran’s growing defence relations with<br /> India are a cause of concern for Pakistan<br />
Nuclear Relations<br />Pakistan-Iran Nuclear Cooperation began during Zia-ul-Haq’s era and continued through the 1990s.<br />COAS Gen Aslam Beg stated in February 1990 that he talked about Nuclear Cooperation with Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guards.<br />“Iran is willing to give whatever it takes, $6 Billion, $10 Billion. We can sell to Iran at any price.”<br />Dr. Qadeer Khan accepted in his confession that he provided Iran with nuclear designs and technology<br />IAEA’s investigations found a P-2 Centrifuge design which Iran admitted to have received in 1987<br />
Reasons for Pakistan’s Nuclear Help<br />Iran, along with Pakistan, could help prevent extra-regional powers from interfering in this region.<br />Financial assistance provided by Iran in exchange for Nuclear Technology<br />Emergence of more Muslim states with Nuclear power would reduce American pressure on Pakistan<br />To counter India’s close relations with Iran<br />
History<br />Middle Ages; when Arab traders were the main supply chain of silk, saffron, spices, cotton and other goods between Pakistan and Europe through the silk route, over centuries of history exist in relations between the two lands<br />
Pakistani role in development of Saudi<br />Pakistan has provided assistance in the field of Science & Technology , infrastructure development and many more fields<br />Pakistan is providing training facilities to Saudi Armed forces<br />
Gulf War<br />Some 5,000 Pakistani troops were stationed in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates as part of the U.S.-led Persian Gulf War efforts in 1990<br />
NUCLEAR DEAL<br />One of the more significant cooperation has been the Pakistan – Saudi Arabia inter-linkages in respect of Saudi Arabia’s plans for nuclear weapons<br />Saudi Arabia has invested heavily in Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program <br />1998-Pakistan responded to India nuclear test due to which western sanctions were imposed <br />
Saudi Arabia supplied free to Pakistan 50,000 barrels of oil per day <br />contingency plans exist for Pakistan to provide nuclear weapons to Saudi Arabia at short notice. <br />2003-Crown Prince Abdullah Bin Abdul Aziz approved continuation of free crude oil<br />Saudi oil deliveries were part of strategic relationship in which Pakistan provided technical help and nuclear umbrella<br />
1990 ONWARDS<br />Longstanding and intimate relationship between both countries<br />Nuclear deterrence for Saudi against a third party<br />Faced common enemies in the past successfully-IRAN<br /> Face a common enemy today in the face of al Qaeda<br />In turn, Pakistan has provided military aid and expertise to the kingdom for decades-close ties between militaries today<br />Saudi Arabia is one of the world’s largest arms importers and Pakistan is seeking to wean it off its traditional European and US suppliers<br />Both were supporting Taliban but in 2001 Saudia broke ties with Taliban<br />
AID<br />More aid received compared to any other country in Arab world<br />2001- 380billion soft loan given to support budget of Pakistan(200 million-budget spending,100 million for fertilizers, 80 million for financing hydro power project)<br />2003-deferred payments of $2 billion by Pakistan turned into grants<br />2006-aid and free trade Pakistan is a GCC member<br />
<ul><li>2005 earthquake -Saudi Arabia topped the list of donor countries.
Official aid followed by large investments from Saudi princes and from religious institutions e.g. Pakistani madrassa educational system, for instance, is Saudi funded by private donors.</li></ul>2005-2006 -272 million of Foreign direct Investment<br />CHEQUE BOOK-DIPLOMACY<br />
2006<br />Republic Day Diplomacy Move<br />A complicating factor on the horizon is the warming up of ties between Saudi Arabia and India. The Kingdom is India’s largest supplier of crude oil and host to more than a million workers. Symbolizing a new interest in India, King Abdullah witnessed the Republic Day military parade in 2005 from the Red Fort in Delhi<br />Presently<br /><ul><li>Manmohan visits Saudia
India wants Saudi Arabia to to pressure Pakistan on Anti-Indian terrorism</li></ul>HOW WILL THIS EFFECT OUR RELATIONSHIP WITH SAUDI ARAB ?????<br />
Geographical Disintegration<br /><ul><li>10,000 square miles at present) land at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea.
Israeli occupancy …major land marks under control around 78% of the land.
Autonomous regions under the control of the Palestinian .
Gaza strip occupies an additional 141 square miles south of Israel.</li></li></ul><li>Timeline ....The relation holds firm<br /><ul><li>Since its creation Pakistan have placed a biased relation for the Palestinian Muslims
Quaid-i-Azam vehemently opposed the partition of Palestine and the establishment of Israel in 1948
Quaid-i-Azam expressed his “surprise and shock” on the UN’s decision to approve of the partition of Palestine
Cable sent to President Truman urging him to “uphold the rights of the Arabs” </li></li></ul><li>Pakistani stands firm….<br /><ul><li>Pakistan and Israel have continuously wavered over the last few years.
Islamabad advocates for an independent Palestinian state and an end to the on-going Israeli illegal occupation of its territories.
Does not consider to recognize the so-called State of Zionist regime.
Advocating a two state solution as the best solution to the conflict.
Recognizes since the Palestinian Declaration of Independenceon November 15, 1988.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Palestinian President, Mahmud Abbas, also paid an official visit to Pakistan in 2005.
Political talks with the Pakistani leaders regarding the current situation of the Middle East and the peace process between Palestine and Israel.
Abbas thanked Musharraf and the people of Pakistan for their continued and devoted support to the Palestinian cause.</li></li></ul><li>Pakistan UAE relations<br />
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven states, termed emirates, which are Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Quwain, Ras al-Khaimah and Fujairah. <br />The United Arab Emirates has the world's seventh largest oil reserves and possesses one of the most developed economies in the Middle East.<br />
UAE’s Foreign policy based on<br />Adoption of dialogue<br />Respect of international conventions<br />Commitment to the United Nations Charter <br />Non-interference of other country's internal affairs<br />The settlement of disputes by peaceful means.<br />
Pakistan and the UAE enjoy extremely close relations, founded on deep-rooted cultural affinities, shared faith and traditions, as also geographic proximity and identity of interests.<br />UAE has been a major donor of economic assistance to Pakistan. Example Sheikh Zayed International Airport in Rahim Yar Khan. UAE has emerged as one of Pakistan's major economic and trading partners.<br />UAE and Pakistan share strategic partnership and diplomatic relations are based on mutual respect, cooperation, coordination and commitment.<br />
UAE in Pakistan: United Arab Emirates is the largest single investor in Pakistan, which is reflective of the close relationship between the two countries.<br />Economic Partnership: UAE is the third largest trading partner of Pakistan. Win-win position for both the countries.<br />Largest privatization deal was finalized between Etisalat and PTCL.<br />Many other UAE based companies working in Pakistan including PARCO, Wateen, EMAAR etc.<br />A Second home: There are already around 700,000 Pakistani Expatriates living and working in the UAE<br />
A friend in need: UAE launches its program for reconstruction of earthquake affected areas in Pakistan, October 2005. <br />The UAE government immediately pledge $ 100 million towards President’s Earthquake Relief Fund.<br />UAE is a founding member of Friends of Democratic Pakistan which seeks to help Pakistan address its security, development, energy and institution building challenges.<br />
Cooperation continues<br />UAE will extend its support to Pakistan in order to counter extremism and terrorism.<br />However UAE continues to follow a very careful path on issues of conflict between Pakistan and India. On the Kashmir issue the press in the UAE has strict instructions to follow a “moderate middle path”. <br />Sheikh Muhammad bin Rashid al Maktoum affirmed his strong commitment towards the strengthening of bilateral relations with Pakistan.<br />Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari termed the relations between the UAE and Pakistan as "outstanding historic and based on cultural, religious and historical ties“.<br />
Iraq<br />Baghdad pact<br />1967 Six day war and honoring of Flt. Lt. SaifulAzam<br />Stance of both states on Wars <br />Indo pak war<br />Iran iraq war<br />Gulf war and Break down of relations <br />
Kuwait <br />1963 Economic cooperation<br /> Trade established<br />1983 Agreement for promotion of capital movement <br />1991 Pakistan Opportunity during Iraq Kuwait Conflict<br />
Foreign Policy Determinants<br />Non-Tangible Factors<br />Common History<br />Culture and Traditions<br />Religion<br />Economic Factors<br />Trade and Commerce<br />Energy sources<br />Geo-Politics<br />Pakistan can provide the closest seaport to the Central Asian republics<br />Stability in Afghanistan is a crucial factor.<br />
Creating Goodwill Initially<br />Pakistan was the among the first nations to recognize all Central Asian states<br />Pakistan gave loans of $30 million to Uzbekistan and $10 million to other Central Asian Republics<br />PIA started flights to all capital cities of Central Asia<br />
Creating Goodwill Initially<br />Five thousand tons of rice and $100,000 worth of medicines were sent to Central Asian States.<br />Cooperation in induction to ECO.<br />Special technical assistance programs initiated in 1992.<br />$500 million energy deal with Tajikistan in March 1992.<br />
The Afghanistan Quandary<br />The civil war in Afghanistan strained relations between Pakistan and Central Asia in two ways<br />Physical blockage of the Afghanistan route<br />Pakistan supported the Taliban against Uzbek, Turkmen and Tajik ethnic groups<br />
Recent Deals<br />Quadrilateral trade agreement with Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China and Pakistan operational from 2004.<br />Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India gas pipeline expected to be functional in 2014.<br />Power projects with Tajikistan to help with Pakistan’s energy deficiencies.<br />
Conclusion<br />While Pakistan is making efforts in the right direction, there are some constraints;<br />Instability in Afghanistan.<br />Pakistan’s relations with Russia and India.<br />Infrastructure deficiencies.<br />
Turkey - Introduction<br />Turkey is a country with 99% Muslim population<br />Turkish is mainly spoken and Kurdish in the south-east.<br />Population : 73,914,260 <br />
Historical Perspective<br />Since, Pakistan and Turkey both are Muslim states, the relations have been friendly so far<br />Even before the birth of Pakistan, during WOI 1857, Muslim soldiers of the sub-continent refused to fight Turkish Muslims.<br />There were a number of protests launched in India against the fall of Caliphate in Turkey<br />
Historical Perspective<br />Pakistan was formed on pure ideological reasons whereas Turkey is a state which follows secularism<br />To allow socio-economic development, Pakistan, Turkey and Iran established the RCD in 1964<br />Turkey supports Pakistan on the Kashmir dispute and Pakistan supports them on the Cyprus conflict<br />
The 80’s<br />The RCD was replaced by ECO (economic cooperation organization) In 1985<br />It was initiated by Pakistan, Iran and Turkey but now it has 10 members which includes 7 Asian and 3 Eurasian nations<br />It is an ad-hoc organization to UN<br />
The 90’s and the present<br />ECO cultural institute was signed at Islamabad in 1995 to foster rich culture heritage of Turkey, Iran and 10 other Asian states<br />mid 1990’s, The hero of the nation, Dr. A Q Khan visited turkey for technological cooperation.<br />In 2004, President Gen Pervez<br /> Musharraf visited Turkey.<br />
President Zardari visited Turkey in 2008 to discuss whether General Musharraf should be exiled<br />In October 2009, Turkish PM, Mr.. Erdogan addressed a joint session of two houses of the parliament of Pakistan<br />Recently Turkish President Gul <br /> visited Pakistan and was awarded <br /> Honorary PhD degree<br />The 90’s and the present<br />
Areas of Convergence<br />Trade, business, investment, defense production, tourism, educational and cultural cooperation are all areas where the perceptions and interests of Turkey and Pakistan converge.<br />Efforts are constantly being made to tap the potential advantage which can be derived from the cooperation of both the states<br />
Areas of Divergence<br />Afghanistan, Kashmir, Israel, nuclear proliferation and, most recently, democracy are five areas where the perceptions and interests of Turkey and Pakistan diverge<br />Turkey does not recognize Taliban regimein Afghanistan<br />(Turkmen-Pakistan gas pipeline project)<br />
Turkey supported the Lahore declaration that Kashmir Issue should be solved through bilateral talks. But after Kargil, the Lahore declaration was reversed<br />Turkey-Israel connection is another area where the two states diverge but Pakistan understands compulsions on turkey<br />Mr. Ecevit's Statement in New Delhi. (being against Islamism militants in Kashmir)<br />Areas of Divergence<br />
Pakistan foreign policy with North Africa<br />
Countries in North Africa<br />Algeria<br />Egypt<br />Libya<br />Morocco<br />Sudan<br />Tunisia<br />
Pakistan relations with Algeria<br />Friendly relations since its inception.<br />Supported Algerian independence from France<br />Recognized provincial government of republic of Algeria in exile<br />Condolence over Benazir death by Algeria.<br />8th Oct 2005, Algeria sent 800 tents, 200 blankets and 10 tons of medicine<br />President of Algeria Abdelaziz Bouteflika was awarded the honour of the "Best Governed Muslim state" by a popular national daily Pakistan Observer in 2005.<br />Pak-Algerian group in 1990<br />Visit by Musharraf – a fresh perspective<br />Signing of extradition treaty in 2003<br />Joint ministerial comission (JMC) in 2005<br />
Pakistan relations with Egypt<br />Both are member of OIC, next eleven and D8<br />Diplomatic and trade relations with Egypt<br />Relations not cordial initially<br />Visit by Ayub khan and Jamal Abdul Nasir<br />Pakistan support in Arab-Israel war<br />Anwar saddat recognized Pakistan’s services in OIC 1974<br />Relations strained over Sudanese border issues<br />Al-AZHAR university<br />
Pakistan relations with Libya<br />Relations always deep and abiding<br />Pakistani ties with Gadaafi<br />Gadafi Stadium<br />Growing ties<br />Help from Libya in economic terms after 1971 Pak-India war<br />Loan of $50bn from Libyan central bank to HBL.<br />2009: Pakistan exporting 50000 skilled labors<br />
Pakistan relations with Sudan<br />Pakistani support to Sudan over its border issues with Egypt and Kenya<br />Both member of OIC, like minded group, G-77<br />Sudanese support to Pakistani in Indo-Pak wars.<br />RALATIONS STRAINED DUE TO<br />Pakistani handling of Sami Mohy EL Din to Guantanamo Bay.<br />Pak-US relations; Sudanese relations with India, IRAN and Bangladesh<br />Yet Pakistan favored Sudan over its territorial issues<br />
Pakistan Morocco relations<br /><ul><li>Pakistan has embassy in Morocco and Morocco has embassy in Islamabad.
Pakistan says that western sahara is the internal problem of Morrocco
Pakistani entrepreneurs invited by Morocco in 2007 to take advantage of FTA </li></ul>Morocco is a big exporter of readymade garments to Europe, and we invite Pakistani companies to share the Moroccan export to Europe<br />
The ambassador went on to invite Pakistani companies to set up garment units in Morocco, where even a 30% value addition is acceptable to the European Union.<br />Currently, Pakistan's exports to Morocco stand at $11.5 million, whilst Moroccan exports to Pakistan stand at $147 million<br />