Federalist No. 10 and More Presidents’ Precedents Take out Lesson 4 and 5 packets
FIRST . . . Finish reading and analyzing Federalist No. 10 What is a faction? What are the dangers of factions? Where do factions originate from? What is Madison’s solution? Read primary source and summary/analysis http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Db2oxalDvM&feature=r elated
Federalist No. 10 Madison defines a faction as "a number of citizens, whether amounting to a minority or majority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community” He identifies the most serious source of faction to be the diversity of opinion in political life which leads to dispute over fundamental issues such as what regime or religion should be preferred. However, he thinks that "the most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property. Those who hold and those who are without property have ever formed distinct interests in society"
Federalist No. 10 He saw direct democracy as a danger to individual rights and advocated a representative democracy in order to protect what he viewed as individual liberty from majority rule, or from the effects of such inequality within society. He says, "A pure democracy can admit no cure for the mischiefs of faction. A common passion or interest will be felt by a majority, and there is nothing to check the inducements to sacrifice the weaker party. Hence it is, that democracies have ever been found incompatible with personal security or the rights of property; and have, in general, been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths"
Federalist No. 10 Madison first assessed that there are two ways to limit the damage caused by faction: either remove the causes of faction or control its effects Creating a society homogeneous in opinions and interests, is impracticable He then argues that the only problem comes from majority factions because the principle of popular sovereignty should prevent minority factions from gaining power Madison concludes that a small democracy cannot avoid the dangers of majority faction because small size means that undesirable passions can very easily spread to a majority of the people, which can then enact its will through the democratic government without difficulty.
Federalist No. 10 Madison states, "The latent causes of faction are thus sown in the nature of man", so the cure is to control their effects. He makes an argument on how this is not possible in a pure democracy but possible in a republic. With pure democracy he means a system in which every citizen votes directly for laws, and with republic he intends a society in which citizens vote for an elite of representatives who then vote for laws. The authors wanted a republic diverse enough to prevent faction but with enough commonality to maintain cohesion among the states
NEXT . . . Look at other President’s Precedents Review Washington’s precedents LIST Lincoln and FDR
Other Presidents’ Precedents Vigilance and Responsibility 2 necessary virtues Vigilance represents the need for the people to check the power Responsibility represents the judgment of those in power to make decisions Need for balance If vigilance gets out of control, it incapacitates the government, preventing it from doing anything If those in power take too much, they can run amuck Hamilton felt the government should be granted more power to achieve a necessary end
Lincoln Lincoln took liberties with his role during the Civil War No president had ever encountered such a crisis, so Lincoln set a precedent of taking more power to solve the crisis Declared martial law Suspended habeas corpus Blockaded southern ports Shut down opposition newspapers Sent federal troops to arrest Americans Freed the slaves Lincoln took extra-Constitutional steps to save the Union
Lincoln a Dictator??? If he was, he was like no other dictator in history Dictatorship is characterized by unlimited, absolute power exercised in arbitrary and unpredictable ways Lincoln still respected legal limits, listened to the will of the people, and risked being voted out of office Lincoln believed his actions were within his duty as President seeing as no one had ever had to deal with a succession
Was the Great Depression a Time forPresidential Power??? FDR faced a crisis during his Presidency His plan to save the country from the Great Depression was to pass the New Deal, a series of economic programs implemented in the United States between 1933 and 1936. However, he needed to “pack” the Supreme Court to do so In the end, the New Deal provided 4 million Americans with jobs in 1 year Calls into question, how involved our government should be? How weak should the Supreme Court and Congress be?
Response/Discussion You have the option of participating in a discussion or writing a 2 paragraph response If you do not write the response, you must PARTICIPATE in the discussion (ie talk more than once, contribute topical, well thought out information) Questions (you may address any in your response) Do you agree or disagree with Madison reguarding the dangers of factions? When should we as American suspend vigilance and allow a President to take on more power to solve a crisis? Or should we never allow this?