Lesson 6 Development of National Government
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Lesson 6 Development of National Government






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Lesson 6 Development of National Government Lesson 6 Development of National Government Presentation Transcript

  • Lesson 6 Development of Our National GovernmentBellringer: Who wrote the Federalist essay No. 10? Provide a brief summary of it.
  • Match the Quote to Its Author  “No slip will pass  Henry unnoticed”  Hamilton  “A Bill of Rights is what  Jefferson the people are entitled  Madison to against every  Washington government, and what no just government should refuse, or rest on inference.”  “A national debt, if it is not excessive, will be to us a national blessing.”  “All men having power ought to be distrusted to a certain degree.”  “Give me liberty or give me death.”
  • Development of the National Government Washington’s Cabinet  Was originally 3 departments  State; handle relations with other nations  Jefferson  Treasury; deal with financial matters  Hamilton  War; provide for the nation’s defense  Knox
  • The Cabinet Changes  Congress also created the positions of attorney general, Edumund Randolph, and postmaster general  READ: http://www.boston.com/business/articles/201 2/04/17/postal_staffers_fear_what_future_wil l_deliver/ Washington regularly met with his cabinet for advice  Part of the executive branch Vice President Adams cast the deciding vote to allow the President to appoint and dismiss cabinet members without Senate’s approval  Increased separation between Executive and Legislative branches
  • Today’s Cabinet Obama’s cabinet today has 15 executive departments  The Cabinet includes the Vice President and the heads of 15 executive departments — the Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs, as well as the Attorney General.  Presidents after Washington added and removed different cabinet positions  Look at wiki site; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabi net_of_the_United_States  http://www.factmonster.com/ipka /A0775305.html (creation of
  • The Cabinet Washington rarely proposed laws, but almost always approved bills from Congress  Focused mainly on foreign affairs and military matters  Left economic troubles to Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury Today, the Secretary of the Treasury deals with financial issues as well as some defense issues. He is the economic advisor to the President, signs all legal currency notes, and is in charge of the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP)
  • Whose in Charge of Money Today? “The Fed”, the Federal Reserve, is the United State’s central banking system today  12 districts with a bank in each  Produces currency  Deals with interest levels  Act on their own independent of the President  Chairman Ben Bernanke  Originated from Alexander Hamilton’s idea
  • Who was in Charge of Money Then? National debt was a huge issue plaguing the country after the American Revolutionary War  Hamilton proposed the US pay off its foreign debts as well as debts to citizens  During the war, the Continental Congress sold bonds to citizens (like loans) and promised to buy them back after the war Hamilton believed the states should help pay off the debt; it would help increase their desire to see the national government succeed  Faced opposition, particularly from the South  The South had fewer debts than the North and felt it was unfair
  • Compromise Hamilton compromised and agreed to have the new capital, Washington D.C., in the South and the South would help pay off debts Hamilton then asked the Congress to create a national bank  Both private citizens and national government could own bank stock  Madison and Jefferson felt the ban would only benefit the wealthy  Others said it was unconstitutional  The constitution never said the Congress could create a national bank  BUT, as Hamilton pointed out, it never said the Congress could NOT create a national bank
  • More Money Issues Hamilton also proposed a tariff, or tax on foreign imports  He hoped to encourage American manufacturing as a way to gain wealth  This protective tariff would protect American industry from foreign competition  The South had little manufacturing and therefore opposed tariffs  In the end, Hamilton got some low tariffs and by the 1790’s, tariffs accounted for 90% of the national income
  • Hamilton’s Plan The final part of Hamilton’s plan was the creation of national taxes  Government needed additional money to pay off debt interest  Congress first opposed the majority of tax proposals, but Hamilton made concessions  Hamilton’s plan gave the national government new financial powers and helped stabilize the country, but it also split Congress  Opponents, led by Jefferson and Madison, feared the new economic strength of the national government
  • First Political Parties Jefferson’s supporters tried to tarnish Washington’s reputation as his time as President came to an end  America was beginning to divide in political parties  In the 1700’s most Americans considered factions harmful, as did Washington
  • First Political Parties By the mid 1790’s, 2 distinct parties had emerged  Federalist; supporters of Hamilton  Stood for vigorous federal government  Distrusted French Revolution  Favored banking and shipping interest  Support from the Northeast and wealthy South  Republicans; supporters of Jefferson  Power to state government; feared strong federal government  Supported French revolutionaries  Small farmers and urban workers
  • More Disputes Hamilton felt the federal government had implied powers, powers not specified in the Constitution  Justify a national bank  Regulate trade Madison and Jefferson believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution Federalists believed in representative government run by officials; little involvement by the public Republicans believed in the participation of ordinary people in government  Issue for Washington while he was President, because Jefferson and Hamilton were in his cabinet
  • Election of 1796 First time people ran in parties  Federalists nominated Adams for president and Charles Pickney for VP  Republicans nominated Jefferson for President and Aaron Burr for VP  Adams and Jefferson started as friends, but became rivals  Adams won 71 electoral votes and Jefferson won 68  Under the provisions of the Constitution, the person with the second highest number of electoral votes became the VP A Federalist President and a
  • Matching: Federalist orRepublican  Rule by wealthy class  Alexander Hamilton  Emphasis on  Strong national manufactured goods government  British alliance  Madison  Strong state government  State banks  Emphasis on  Rule by people agricultural  Protective tariffs  Strict interpretation of  National bank Constitution  Loose interpretation  French alliance of Constriction  Free trade
  • • Different philosophies on government • Conflicting interpretation ofCauses Constitution • Different economic and regional interests • Disagreements over foreign affairs • Federalists and Republicans propose different solutions • 2 parties nominate candidatesEffects • Political parties become way of life in US
  • EXIT CARD Answer in packet Describe Hamilton’s economic plan for the US.
  • Your Choice Choose a political party (Federalist or Republican) Write a one paragraph reason why you chose that party Create a campaign poster for your party