Lesson 4 Bellringer: In what ways didEuropean actions impact Africa?
Loyalty• Who/What are you loyal to?• What does that word/feeling mean?• Read page 47
Independence and Its Challenges– Problem for Africa: Europe grouped many different ethnic groups together with long-standing rivalries • Led to conflict– Africa desired independence • Growing nationalism in the 1900’s • Pride in one’s homeland
South African Independence– 1912: South Africa forms a political party which fought for independence and the rights of the South Africans • Apartheid; system of racial segregation • Rights based on color • Keep the white minority in power
Desire for Independence– 1920’s a movement known as Pan-Africanism began • It stressed unity and cooperation among all Africans • “Africa for Africans”– WWII had a huge impact on Africa’s history • Africa was a crucial component to the Allied forces • Colonies supplied equipment and soldiers– African soldiers came home victorious and desired independence even more • WWII also weakened Western Europe • Too expensive to keep colonies – Some African colonies gained independence peacefully – Others went to war
Individual Countries– Ghana: the people began to boycott British goods • Protests, sent to jail • 1952 gained independence– Algeria: French colony • Bloody war in 1954 • 1962 won independence, but at the cost of 100,000 Algerian lives
Challenges– Challenges for Independent Africa • Leaders had little experience • Unstable governments • Military governments – Limited rights – Jailed protesters – Bloody coups– Some countries established democracies • “Let Africa have time to establish own democracies” • Very young countries
Conflict– Read articles about genocide– Rwanda BBC Article– Darfur– Discuss