1. Federalists vs. AntifederalistsBellringer: What 3 Amendments from the Bill of Rights would you keep and why?
2. Bill of Rights What 3 Amendments did your group keep? Why?
3. FEDERAL Questions What do you think the “federalists” believed in? What do you think the “anti-federalists” believe in?
4. Definition Definition: fed·er·al, [fed-er-uhl], adjective 1. pertaining to or of the nature of a union of states under a central government distinct from the individual governments of the separate states: the federal government of the U.S. 2. of, pertaining to, or noting such a central government: federal offices. What, at this point of American history, would the federalists and the antifederalists be arguing about?
5. Ratification The Constitution and Bill of Rights had been written, now the states had to ratify it The Federal Convention sent the proposed Constitution to the Confederation Congress, which at the end of September 1787 submitted it to the states for ratification. Ratify a constitution which limited their power and created a strong national government
6. The Federalists James Madison was a huge proponent for a strong national government, so he, along with Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay wrote the Federalist Papers A series of 85 articles or essays promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution 77 of the essays were published regularly in newspapers The authors of the Federalists papers wanted to both influence the vote in favor of ratification and to shape future
7. The Federalists The authors asked their readers in the first paper: “It has been frequently remarked, that it seems to have been reserved to the people of this country, by their conduct and example, to decide the important question, whether societies of men are really capable or not, of establishing good government from reflection and choice, or whether they are forever destined to depend, for their political constitutions, on accident and force.”
8. The Authors The authors used the pseudonym "Publius", in honor of Roman consul Publius Valerius Publicola Authors became powerful political figures Madison became a leading member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Virginia (1789–1797), Secretary of State (1801–1809), and ultimately the fourth President of the United States. Hamilton, who had been a leading advocate of national constitutional reform throughout the 1780s and represented New York at the Constitutional Convention, in 1789 became the first Secretary of the Treasury, a post he held until his resignation in 1795. John Jay, who had been secretary for foreign affairs under the Articles of Confederation from 1784 through their expiration in 1789, became the first Chief Justice of the United States in 1789, stepping down in 1795 to accept
9. Convincing NY The Federalist was written to support the ratification of the Constitution, specifically in New York. Separate ratification proceedings took place in each state, and the essays were not reliably reprinted outside of New York; furthermore, by the time the series was well underway, a number of important states had already ratified it, for instance Pennsylvania on December 12. New York held out until July 26; certainly The Federalist was more important there
10. Opposition to the Bill of Rights The Federalist Papers (specifically Federalist No. 84) are notable for their opposition to what later became the United States Bill of Rights. The idea of adding a Bill of Rights to the Constitution was originally controversial because the Constitution, as written, did not specifically enumerate or protect the rights of the people, rather it listed the powers of the government and left all that remained to the states and the people. Alexander Hamilton, the author of Federalist No. 84, feared that such an enumeration, once written down explicitly, would later be interpreted as a list of the only rights that people had. The matter was further clarified by the Ninth Amendment.
11. Federalist Papers Today Modern approaches and interpretations Federal judges, when interpreting the Constitution, frequently use the Federalist Papers as a contemporary account of the intentions of the framers and ratifiers. They have been applied on issues ranging from the power of the federal government in foreign affairs (in Hines v. Davidowitz) to the validity of ex post facto laws
12. Anti-Federalism Anti-Federalism refers to a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the Constitution of 1787 Led by Patrick Henry of Virginia, Anti- Federalists worried, among other things, that the position of president, then a novelty, might evolve into a monarchy. Publish their own set of essays arguing against ratification
13. Famous Men Famous Anti-Federalists Patrick Henry Samuel Adams George Mason Richard Henry Lee Robert Yates James Monroe
14. Ratification Debate During the period of debate over the ratification of the Constitution, numerous independent local speeches and articles were published all across the country. Initially, many of the articles in opposition were written under pseudonyms, such as "Brutus," "Centinel," and "Federal Farmer."
15. A New Constitution Ratification Delaware, on December 7, 1787, became the first State to ratify the new Constitution, with its vote being unanimous. Pennsylvania ratified on December 12, 1787, by a vote of 46 to 23 (66.67%). New Jersey ratified on December 19, 1787, and Georgia on January 2, 1788, both with unanimous votes. The requirement of ratification by nine states, set by Article Seven of the Constitution, was met when New Hampshire voted to ratify, on June 21, 1788. In New York, fully two thirds of the convention delegates were at first opposed to the Constitution. Hamilton led the Federalist campaign. An attempt to attach conditions to ratification almost succeeded, but on July 26, 1788, New York ratified, with a recommendation that a bill of rights be appended. The vote was close – yeas 30 (52.6%), nays 27 – due largely to Hamiltons forensic abilities and his reaching a few key compromises with moderate anti-Federalists led by Melancton Smith. The Continental Congress – which still functioned at irregular intervals – passed a resolution on September 13, 1788, to put the new Constitution into operation.
16. Federalist No. 10 Read Federalist No. 10 Discuss its meaning Current issues dealing with factions
17. Exit Card Answer in packet What were the anti-federalists concerned about?
18. Your Response Do you think political parties are dangerous? Answer in a 2 paragraph response, either citing or disputing Madison’s claims in his Federalist No. 10 Be specific in your response