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Lesson 2 Kingdoms and Empires
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Lesson 2 Kingdoms and Empires


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  • 1. Lesson 2 Kingdoms and Empires What was the name of the area where the first major civilizations developed and why did they develop there?
  • 2. Where Do People Live and Why?
  • 3. Aksum• Located in East Africa, 1000 BCE• African and Arab traders began settling along the coasts of the Red Sea – Over time, Aksum came to control trade in the Red Sea – Came to power after Nubia fell
  • 4. Aksum• Trade network that stretched from the Mediterranean to India – Ideas traveled as well – Many people in Aksum became Christian• Aksum began to decline in the 600s AD and the Arabs took control of the regions trade
  • 5. Aksum’s Decline• As Aksum declined West African kingdoms rose up on the other side of the continent – Power based on trade of salt and gold • North Africa had salt, West Africa had gold = trade • Power and riches to the kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
  • 6. Ghana• Located between Senegal and Niger Rivers• Controlled trade in West Africa• Ghanas kings gained wealth by taxing goods which were traded throughout the area – Lost control of trade routes and a new kingdom rose up
  • 7. Mali• Rose in the mid 1200s in the upper Niger Rive Valley – “Where the king lives” • Controlled gold and salt mines – Malis most famous king was Mansa Musa • 1312 AD, 25-year peaceful reign
  • 8. Mali• Laws based on the Quran, holy book of Islam – Islam had been spread through Northern Africa by the Arab traders – Muslim make a yearly pilgrimage, a religious journey, to Mecca • Mecca is a holy city for Muslims (Islam prophet Muhammad was born there) • Mansa Musa brought a large tribute of gold to Mecca – Displayed Malis wealth – Interested Europe
  • 9. Songhai• Mansa Musa died in 1332 AD• Mali was declining and eventually was destroyed by the next kingdom, Songhai – Songhai became West Africas most powerful kingdom – Wealthy trading cities
  • 10. East African City-States• Trade also helped East Africa – Sailed to Indian and China to bring back goods – Were also exposed to Islam • Also integrated Arab words into their language • Grew into powerful city-states
  • 11. Kali• Powerful city-state – Rich from trade – Traders paid large taxes – 1500s conquered by Portugal so they could build their own trade empire
  • 12. Zimbabwe• Another great trading civilization• “Stone dwelling” – Peak in 1300 AD – Upon seeing the ruins in the 1800s, the European explorers did not think Africans could be responsible for such feats
  • 13. Period Time LocationGhanaMaliSonghaiKilwaZimbabwe
  • 14. Exit CardWhat made the kingdoms and city-states in Africa so powerful?
  • 15. Create Your Own Trade Map• Using the map template, make a historical map• Label the locations of past civilization• Draw arrows to explain how goods, ideas, and people moved