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Lesson 2






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    Lesson 2 Lesson 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Lesson 2: Bellringer What is a paradigm?
    • Concepts• Life, liberty, pursuit of happiness• All men are created equal• Religious toleration• Separation of power • Where have we heard these concepts before????
    • John Locke• Pioneered these concepts• English philosopher of the Enlightenment• European enlightenment had a huge impact on American and led to America’s own enlightenment
    • Enlightenment Reading Discussion
    • The Enlightenment• 18th century to the Napoleonic Wars• Western Europe• Change in thinking – The printing press allowed the works of Enlightened philosophers to be mass produced for readers – Ideas spread around the world
    • The Enlightenment• Immanuel Kant described it as the freedom to use one’s own intelligence – Who told people how to think before?• Focus on reason, observation, and science• Moving away from religious superstition
    • Enlightened Views• Enlightened philosophers had new views on government on society• Believed in freedom and democracy, which went against the thoughts of the time: divine rights of monarchy• Believed in using knowledge, religious toleration, laissez faire economics, and power derived from the governed
    • The Enlightenment Sparked Action• French Revolution• American Revolution
    • American Enlightenment• Own version of the enlightenment• Mid to late 18th century• Linked European Enlightenment to American Revolution• Many ideas of the European Enlightenment inspired the Founding Fathers and sparked movement in the colonies
    • American Enlightenment• Founded on ideas of: republicanism, liberty, democracy, and religious toleration – Where have we heard these before?• Greatly influenced by Locke
    • 1. Republicanism• Ideology of governing a nation as republic, in which positions of power are chosen by the people in some form of election – Founding Fathers looked at government models from the past • Rome – The more Americans believed in republicanism, the more they felt England in violation and conflict must arise
    • 2. Liberty• Freedom from despotic rule (kings) – Influenced by Locke; “No one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or processions” – Lead to the belief of “Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” – Founding Fathers believed men had certain rights (inalienable) and England was infringing on their rights • Morally wrong
    • 3. Democracy• Government run by the people, majority rule• Citizens should have a say in their government• Came from Enlightenment reaction against authoritarianism
    • Religious Toleration• Founding principle of the colonies• Founding Fathers wanted a country in which all faiths could freely practice – John Locke
    • American Enlightenment• All these ideals of the American Enlightenment were in contrast to the way England was treating the colonists – The more Americans believed in these ideals, the more conflict brewed – American Revolution was inevitable
    • Thomas Paine, Common Sense• Published during American Revolution• Huge circulation within the American colonies• Written in common language• Argued against British rule in America – Read excerpt – Look for ideals
    • Question• In what ways was the American Enlightenment a pertinent precursor to the American Revolutionary War?• 2 paragraph response• Use notes
    • John Locke• Two Treatises on Government• Political philosophy book• Published anonymously 1689 – First Treatise argued against divine rule – Second Treatise outlines a theory of civil society In reading, underline evidence of American Enlightenment or other aspects of American freedom you recognize