Lesson 1 Taxation without Representation


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Lesson 1 Taxation without Representation

  1. 1. Bellringer What does the phrase “Taxation without Representation” mean?
  2. 2. “American Revolution” <ul><li>Free Write </li></ul><ul><li>Write down any phrases or words that come to mind when you hear, “American Revolution” </li></ul>
  3. 3. “ Taxation without Representation” <ul><li>Many American (British) colonists believed the lack of direct representation in the British Parliament was infringing on their rights as English citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the colonists felt the laws Parliament passed (particularly tax laws, as they affected the colonists more directly) were unconstitutional. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At this point the colonists viewed themselves </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. “Virtual Representation” <ul><li>Allegedly, Parliament members represented the interests of all British subjects rather than for the interests of only the district which elected him </li></ul><ul><ul><li>William Pitt called it, “the most contemptible idea that ever entered into the head of a man; it does not deserve serious refutation.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How representative is American government? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Colonial Government <ul><li>Government in the colonies (the governor) was an extension of the English government and represented its interests. Courts imposed British laws. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign policy and diplomatic affairs were controlled by Parliament. This included the trading laws which later infuriated the colonists. The colonies handled local laws. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The colonists dealt with Native American conflict, while Britain handled foreign wars with France and Spain. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Colonial Government <ul><ul><li>Governor council members were appointed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even though the colonists had assemblies such as the House of Burgesses, the governor’s rule was incontrovertible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This desire to have a voice led to increased democratic thinking </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Independent Thinking <ul><li>However, British colonists did not originally think when coming to America, they would form a new, democratic country. This was the beginning of a changing mindset within the colonists. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Independent Thinking <ul><li>The vote was awarded to more men in the American colonies than in most other countries </li></ul><ul><li>This taste of their own colonial government, along with their geographic distance from Great Britain and influences from the Enlightenment created an independent mindset within the colonists </li></ul><ul><li>Increased conflict between the Governor and his colonial assembly was an example of growing independence in the colonies </li></ul>
  9. 9. Colonial Issues with Parliament <ul><li>Did not get a vote for representatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No direct representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During this fight for increased representation, the colonists argued on the basis of natural rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formed an argument around the idea that government should derive power from the governed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influences from Enlightenment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Ireland and Great Britain <ul><li>Ireland was part of the United Kingdom (in union with England) </li></ul><ul><li>With this union, Ireland came under direct rule of England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ireland wanted its own government, but also wanted to remain loyal to the English monarchy </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Ireland and Great Britain <ul><li>Read article (“A Brief History of Ireland”) in groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss as a class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How does it relate to what we are studying? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Exit Card <ul><li>What does, “Taxation without Representation” mean? </li></ul>
  13. 13. “ Shifting Paradigms” <ul><li>What does this mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A paradigm is a concept; a set of ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When one shifts paradigms, they move from believing one set of ideas to a different set of ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What ideas would shift within the colonists? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. “Shifting Paradigms” <ul><li>The American Revolution was taking place before armed conflict at Lexington and Concord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was a revolution within the minds of the colonists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifting from considering themselves British to seeing themselves as different </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifting from thinking they were part of Great Britain to forging an independent nation </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. “Shifting Paradigms” <ul><li>Result of a series of social, political, and intellectual transformations </li></ul><ul><li>The colonists began thinking differently for a variety of reasons, but one reason was the Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual movement in Europe in the 18th century which focused on logic and reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An example of shifting paradigms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moving away from the church, monarchies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased availability of written material </li></ul></ul></ul>