Types of Poetry Narrative poetry: tells a story Dramatic poetry: uses drama to present the speech of one or more characters Lyric poetry: expresses the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker
Elements of Poetry Meter: the regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in each line of poetry Sound devices: elements that enhance a poem’s meaning by adding a musical quality to the language Imagery: language that uses words or phrases that appeal to the senses Figurative language: language used imaginatively instead of literally
Ways to Describe a Poem’s Meter Name its main type of foot Foot: each unit of rhythm Iamb ( ˘ / ) around Trochee ( / ˘ ) broken Spondee ( / / ) airship Dactyl ( / ˘ ˘ ) argument Anapest (˘ ˘ / ) understand Count the number of feet in each line Monometer = one foot Dimeter = two feet Trimeter = three feet Tetrameter = four feet Pentameter = five feet Name the different types of stanzas Stanza: groups of poetic lines Couplets = two lines Tercets = three lines Quatrains = four lines Sestets = six lines
Sound Devices Rhyme: repetition of sounds at the ends of words (top and drop) Alliteration: repetition of initial consonant sounds (weak and weary) Consonance: repetition of final consonant sounds (pull and fall) Assonance: repetition of similar vowel sounds (low and tow) Onomatopoeia: use of a word that sounds like what it means (fizz and hiss)
Figurative Language: Figures of Speech Simile: compares two unlike things by using like or as I wandered lonely as a cloud Metaphor: compares two unlike things without using like or as Life is a broken-winged bird Personification: gives human traits to something nonhuman Let the rain sing you a lullaby Oxymoron: combines two contradictory words; expresses a paradox (an idea that seems contradictory but is actually true) A wise fool
Emily Dickinson 1830-1886 Amherst, Massachusetts Wrote 1,775 poems only 7 were published before she died (anonymously) Very private, small circle of friends
Emily Dickinson: Adult Life Traveled as young woman but barely left hometown as an adult Spent the last 10 years of her life in house/garden Dressed only in white Wouldn’t let friends/family near her Failinghealth doctor was only allowed to observe from afar Sometimes lowered a basket of candy/fruit to children from her upstairs window
Emily Dickinson: Post-Death Died in the same house she’d been born in Left drawers full of poems Gave instructions to destroy poems after death Familydisobeyed edited and published Did not become fully recognized until 1955 Publication of The Poems of Emily Dickinson
Emily Dickinson’s Poetry Uses both exact rhyme and slant rhyme Exact rhyme: two words had identical sounds in their final syllables Glove - - Above Slantrhyme: the final sounds are similar but not identical Glove - - Prove
“Because I could not stop for death” Symbols: objects/ideas representing something else 1. Death 2. Immortality 3. Slow pace of carriage 4. Recess 5. Fields of “gazing grain” 6. Setting sun 7. Gossamer gown and tulle tippet 8. House 9. Feeling that each century feels shorter than a day
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