A short poem expressing the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker ◦ Ancient Greece: sung to music (lyre) ◦ Today: musical quality of language
The Romantics favored lyric poetry because they wrote about personal emotion ◦ Wordsworth: “London, 1802” “The World Is Too Much with Us” ◦ Coleridge: “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”Wordsworth Coleridge
Heinrich Heine ◦ 1797-1856 ◦ Brilliant love poet ◦ “The Lorelei”
I cannot explain the sadnessThats fallen on my breast.An old, old fable haunts me,And will not let me rest.The air grows cool in the twilight,And softly the Rhine flows on;The peak of a mountain sparklesBeneath the setting sun.More lovely than a vision,A girl sits high up there;Her golden jewelry glistens,She combs her golden hair.With a comb of gold she combs it,And sings an evensong;The wonderful melody reachesA boat, as it sails along.The boatman hears, with an anguishMore wild than was ever known;Hes blind to the rocks around him;His eyes are for her alone.At last the waves devouredThe boat, and the boatmans cry;And this did with her singing,The golden Lorelei.
Many years before the Romantic Era, Japanese wrote poems discussing similar ideas/emotions Haiku ◦ 3 line poems ◦ 1st line: 5 syllables 2nd line: 7 syllables 3rd line: 5 syllables ◦ Focus on nature and intense emotions
The sun’s way:Hollyhocks turn toward itThrough all the rain of May. Poverty’s child – He starts to grind the rice, And gazes at the moon Clouds come from time to time – And bring to men a chance to rest From looking at the moon
Scampering over saucers –The sound of a rat.Cold, cold. Spring rain: In our sedan Your soft whispers. Fuji alone Left unburied By young green leaves
Beautiful, seen through holesMade in a paper screen:The Milky Way. Far-off mountain peaks Reflected in its eyes: The dragonfly. A world of dew: Yet within the dewdrops – Quarrels.
1. Main idea of Heinrich Heine’s “The Lorelei.”2. Main idea behind the haiku of Matsuo Bashō.3. Main idea behind the haiku of Yosa Buson.4. Main idea behind the haiku of Kobayashi Issa.5. Major difference between poets’ perception of nature in the English Romantics’ poetry and Japanese haiku.