Colt, chief joseph heading west, fight no more forever
The Western Frontier
Historical Context:After the Civil War Physical expansion and industrialization Homestead Act of 1862 ◦ 160 acres out west for anyone who would live on the land and improve it ◦ Half a million farmers (including thousands of freed African Americans) moved west ◦ Thousands of miners went to find gold First transcontinental railroad = 1869
Historical Context: Disappearing Frontier By 1890 the west had been transformed ◦ No longer open range and grazing buffalo ◦ Replaced by cattle ranches, railroads, fenced land Indian nations disappeared ◦ Depended on buffalo for survival ◦ Forced from land by settlers ◦ Sent to live in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) Even that was opened up to settlers
Chief Joseph 1840-1904 Born in Oregon territory Leader of Native American tribe forced to Idaho Offered a treaty by government but refused War began between U.S. army and Chief Joseph’s people Eventually surrendered because people were suffering too much
“I Will Fight No More Forever”1. What happened to the other chiefs?2. Who has been left to carry on the fight?3. Why is Chief Joseph surrendering?4. Now that the battle is over, what does Chief Joseph want to do?5. Describe Chief Joseph’s relationship to his people.
Miriam Davis Colt 1815-1900 American pioneer traveling west Family joining a commune of vegetarians in the Kansas territory Kept a journal to describe what she saw and felt on the trip and upon arrival