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  • 1. Organ Systems of the Human BodyThere are 11 major organ systems inthe human body.They work together to maintainhomeostasis.
  • 2. Can you name them?
  • 3. Integumentary System What part of your body has to be partly dead to keep you alive? Clue: It comes in many colors Clue: It is the largest organ in your body Clue: You can see it right now!
  • 4. Integumentary System Includes your skin, your hair, and your nails Protects the tissues beneath them Covers your body Helps maintain homeostasis
  • 5. Structure andFunction of Skin Made of both live and dead epithelial cells Contains hair follicles, sweat glands, oil glands, muscle fibers, nerve fibers and blood vessels Protects you by keeping water in your body and foreign particles out. Nerve endings in your skin let you feel things around you Regulates body temperature. When you sweat, your skin and body cools Helps get rid of wastes through your sweat.
  • 6. Structure and Function of Hair and Nails Like skin, contains both live and dead cells. Hair protects skin from UV light Eyelashes keep dust and bugs out of your eyes Hair helps regulate body temperature (goosebumps) Nails protect the tips of your fingers and toes
  • 7. Cardiovascular System Includes your heart, blood and blood vessels Carries nutrients to your cells Carries waste products from your cells Carries hormones to your cells
  • 8. Structure & Function of the Heart Made of cardiac muscle Has 4 chambers: left and right atrium (top) and left and right ventricle (bottom) Right side pumps oxygen poor blood to the lungs Left side pumps oxygen rich blood to the body
  • 9. Structure and Function of Blood Blood is made of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma Red blood cells are made in the bone marrow Red blood cells carry oxygen to your cells with the help of a protein called hemoglobin White blood cells defend the body against pathogens (bacteria and viruses that make you sick) Platelets help your blood to clot
  • 10. Structure and Function of Blood Vessels Blood vessels include arteries, veins and capillaries Blood vessels are made of smooth muscle Arteries carry oxygen rich blood from the heart to the body Capillaries are a tiny vessels where there is an exchange of O2 & CO2, nutrients and waste products, and other substances. Veins carry oxygen poor blood back to the heart
  • 11. Muscular System Made of the muscles in your body that let you and your organs move
  • 12. Structure and Function of Muscles Do you remember the 3 types of muscles? Which are voluntary (under your control) and which are involuntary (not under your control)?Smooth – found in digestive tract and vesselsSkeletal – attached to bonesCardiac – found in heart
  • 13. Structure and Function of Muscles Responsible for movement Skeletal muscles is attached to bones by tendons (connective tissue) Do you see them? Usually work in pairs – when one contracts, the other relaxes
  • 14. Skeletal System Made of bone and connective tissue
  • 15. Structure andFunction of Bones
  • 16. Structure and Function of Bones Protection: protects your organs Storage: store minerals to help nerves and muscles work property, store fat that can be used for energy Movement: skeletal muscles pull on bones to produce movement Blood: marrow in your bones make blood cells
  • 17. Interesting Fact When you were born, most of your bones were soft and rubbery – made of cartilage. Over time, this cartilage is replaced by bone. Where do you still have cartilage? Hint: it is soft and flexible.
  • 18. Bone Joints A place where 2 or more bones meet is a joint Joints are held together by ligaments (a type of connective tissue) Joints are cushioned by the cartilage (a type of connective tissue) at the end of your bones Joints are either moveable (gliding, ball and socket or hinge) or not moveable (fixed)
  • 19. Structure and Function of Joints Gliding joint – hand and wrist glide past one another Ball and socket joint – like a video stick, allows movement in all directions Hinge joint – like a door, movement is in two directions Fixed joint – no movement, or little movement.
  • 20. Respiratory System Includes the nose, throat, lungs and passageways that lead to the lungs Respiration is the process by which a body gets and uses O2, and releases CO2 and H2O The first part of respiration is breathing (inhaling and exhaling), and the second part is cellular respiration, which involves chemical reactions that release energy from food.
  • 21. Structure and Functionof the Nose and Throat Your nose is the main passageway into and out of the respiratory system. Your nose has little hairs that filter the air you breathe. Air can also enter through your mouth. The throat has 2 parts – the pharynx and larynx Air enters the lungs through the pharynx, and food enters the esophagus through the larynx
  • 22. Function of the Nose and Throat Nose Contains hair to filter air Throat Air and food enter body Pharynx Larynx Air enters lungs Food enters esophagus
  • 23. Function of the Lungs Your body has 2 sponge-like lungs The trachea (entrance to the lungs) divides into 2 branches called bronchi One bronchus connects to each lung Bronchi branch into smaller tubes called bronchioles Bronchioles branch into tiny sacs called alveoli Your lungs have no muscles, what causes you to breath are the rib muscles and a large muscle called the diaphragm
  • 24. Breathing and Cellular Respiration Look closely at the alveoli – what do you see? When you breathe, O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the alveoli. In cellular respiration, O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the capillaries
  • 25. The Digestive System A group of many organs that work together to digest food so that it can be used by the body Some organs have food pass through them, other organs produce enzymes that help in the digestion of food
  • 26. Function of the Digestive System Mouth: Teeth for mechanical digestion, saliva for chemical digestion Esophagus: Peristalsis moves food to stomach Stomach: Muscular (smooth) sac that continues mechanical digestion. Secretes HCl acid to help with chemical digestion Small Intestine: Chemical digestion continues Large Intestine: Absorbs H2O, stores, compacts and eliminates material not absorbed into the blood Rectum& Anus: Eliminates waste from the body
  • 27. Function of theDigestive System Salivary Glands: Secrete saliva that helps in the chemical digestion of carbohydrates Pancreas: secretes enzymes that helps to neutralize the acid in the stomach and in the chemical digestion of sugars Liver & Gallbladder: Helps in digestion by  Making bile to break up fat  Stores nutrients  Breaks down toxins
  • 28. Interesting Facts If you were to stretch your small intestine out, it would be 6 m long! If you flattened out the surface, it would cover a tennis court! How is this possible? Look up villi It takes about 24 hrs for food to travel through your digestive system
  • 29. The Urinary System Includes the kidneys and bladder Removes waste products from your blood
  • 30. Function of the Kidney The kidneys are a pair of organs that constantly remove waste products from your blood. If these waste products are not removed, your body can actually be poisoned.
  • 31. Function of Urinary Bladder Waste fluid (urine) leaves the kidneys through the ureters and enters the bladder. Urine leaves the body through the urethra
  • 32. The Nervous System Consists of central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system Central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system all other parts The CNS acts as the control center for the body The PNS carries information to and from the CNS
  • 33. Structure and Function of the Brain Main control of the nervous system Consists of 3 parts: Cerebrum (controls thought and memories), cerebellum (controls sensory info from muscles, etc), and medulla (controls breathing, body temp, heart rate) Has both voluntary and involuntary movements. Can you name a voluntary movement? An involuntary movement?
  • 34. Function of the Spinal Cord Carries messages from the PNS to your brain About as big around as your thumb Protected by bones - vertebrae
  • 35. Function of Neurons (aka Nerves) Messages from your environment travel through the nervous system along neurons Neurons are special cells that transfer messages by impulses (a form of electrical energy) Funny looking cells with extensions – dendrites and axons
  • 36. The Reproductive System
  • 37. The Endocrine System A collection of glands and groups of cells that secrete hormones that regulate growth, development, and homeostasis A gland is a group of cells that make special chemical for the body These chemicals, called hormones, are made in one type of cell and cause a change in another cell or tissue in your body
  • 38. Function of the Endocrine System Pancreas: regulates blood sugar Thyroid: regulates rate at which you use energy Parathyroid: regulates calcium levels in your blood Adrenal: helps body respond to danger Thymus: regulates immune system Pituitary: secretes hormones to help other glands Ovaries/Testes: secretes hormones needed for reproduction
  • 39. The Lymphatic System Includes the thymus gland, bone marrow, spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes and lymph vessels
  • 40. The Lymphatic System A group of organs and tissues that helps your body fight pathogens (bacteria or viruses that make you sick) Works with the bones in the skeletal system A group of organs and tissues that collect excess fluid that leaks out of the capillaries and returns it to your blood
  • 41. Structure and Function of the Lymphatic System Thymus gland: produces T cells to help fight infections Bone marrow: produces lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells that fight infection Spleen: Produces lymphocytes and removes defective red blood cells Tonsils: Lymphocytes in the tonsils trap pathogens that enter the throat Lymph nodes: Store lymphocytes that fight infections and remove pathogens from lymphatic fluids Lymphatic fluid: Transport lymphatic fluid throughout the body
  • 42. What can you tell me about these organ systems?