Grammar 3 gerunds and infinitives- i co-2011.


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Grammar 3 gerunds and infinitives- i co-2011.

  1. 1. Gerunds and infinitives Grammar III I CO – 2011 by Carlos Roberto Mora
  2. 2. Infinitive <ul><li>The uninflected form of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>The infinitive form may be used alone or in conjunction with the particle to . </li></ul><ul><li>An infinitive is the base form of a verb with </li></ul><ul><li>-to- </li></ul>
  3. 3. Infinitive (to) + Gerund <ul><li>The infinitive after a verb often describes a future event. </li></ul><ul><li>After: hope, expect, promise, want… the event in the to-infinitive comes after the activity or thought in the main verb: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I hope to see you next week. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gerund describes an activity . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We enjoyed seeing you last weekend. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>afford / agree </li></ul><ul><li>learn / need </li></ul><ul><li>ask / decide </li></ul><ul><li>promise / refuse - to - </li></ul><ul><li>expect / fail </li></ul><ul><li>tell / want </li></ul><ul><li>hope / wish </li></ul><ul><li>want / decide </li></ul>
  5. 5. afford / agree <ul><li>I agree to go to the USA trip this summer. </li></ul><ul><li>I can afford to buy this picture. </li></ul><ul><li>learn / need </li></ul><ul><li>We should learn to do housework. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans need to drink water. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hope / wish <ul><li>I hope to meet Beckham in England. </li></ul><ul><li>I wish to fly up high in the sky. </li></ul><ul><li>Want / decide </li></ul><ul><li>I want to do the homework today. </li></ul><ul><li>I decide to buy this book. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Expect / fail <ul><li>We expect to pass the English exam. </li></ul><ul><li>We failed to do the homework. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell / want </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted to tell her about his feelings. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ask / decide <ul><li>I asked my mum to go shopping with me. </li></ul><ul><li>I decided to go hiking this Sunday. </li></ul><ul><li>Promise / refuse </li></ul><ul><li>I promised my mother to finish my homework this weekend. </li></ul><ul><li>I refuse to invite Mary to my party. </li></ul>
  9. 9. No major difference in meaning <ul><li>Some verbs can be followed by either the infinitive or the gerund without any major difference in meaning: </li></ul><ul><li>Mother Teresa started to live/living in the slums of Calcutta from 1948. </li></ul><ul><li>Though she faced many problems, Mother Teresa continued to work/working for the poor. </li></ul>Begin Continue Start Intend
  10. 10. Gerund (general) to-infinitive (particular situation) <ul><li>Some verbs are generally followed by the gerund when used in a general sense </li></ul><ul><li>The to-infinitive is often used for a particular situation. </li></ul><ul><li>I like swimming , but I don ’ t like to swim on cold days. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Gerund is formed by adding “ ing ” to the base form of a verb <ul><li>swim  swimming </li></ul><ul><li>eat  eating </li></ul><ul><li>run  running </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Gerund can be used… <ul><li>As a noun </li></ul><ul><li>Running is my favourite sport. (subject) </li></ul><ul><li>He tried running faster. (object) </li></ul><ul><li>She was afraid of losing . (object of preposition) </li></ul>
  13. 13. After adjectives + preposition <ul><li>accustomed to capable of </li></ul><ul><li>fond of afraid of </li></ul><ul><li>successful in good at </li></ul><ul><li>tired of interested in </li></ul><ul><li>She is accustomed to training for many hours. </li></ul><ul><li>He is good at running the 200 meters race. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>admit </li></ul><ul><li>avoid </li></ul><ul><li>delay </li></ul><ul><li>deny </li></ul><ul><li>enjoy - ing - </li></ul><ul><li>finish </li></ul><ul><li>keep </li></ul><ul><li>mind </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Admit </li></ul><ul><li>My brother admitted breaking the vase. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid </li></ul><ul><li>I avoid walking on busy streets. </li></ul><ul><li>Delay </li></ul><ul><li>The school delayed opening this morning. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Finish <ul><li>I finish doing my homework. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep </li></ul><ul><li>After 4 hours, he keeps standing there. </li></ul><ul><li>Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Would you mind lending your pen to me. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Deny <ul><li>I deny doing a wrong thing </li></ul><ul><li>I deny being late to school every day. </li></ul><ul><li>I deny talking during the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>I enjoy playing computer games. </li></ul>
  18. 18. After verbs… <ul><li>admit can ’ t help finish </li></ul><ul><li>keep try enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>advise keep dislike </li></ul><ul><li>appreciate mind avoid </li></ul><ul><li>understand suggest forgive </li></ul><ul><li>John has finished repairing his bicycle. </li></ul><ul><li>They enjoy walking in the evening. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary dislikes swimming in winter. </li></ul>
  19. 19. I enjoy to swim. Which is correct ? I   enjoy swimming. right
  20. 20. I want to study . Which is correct ?   I want studying . right
  21. 21. I finish to eat . Which is correct ?   I finish eating . right
  22. 22. I need to study . Which is correct ?   I need studying . right
  23. 23. I hope to study . Which is correct ?   I hope studying . right
  24. 24. I stopped to smoke . Which is correct ?   I stopped smoking . right
  25. 25. Also… <ul><li>Some verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund , with NO DIFFERENCE IN MEANING </li></ul><ul><li>I like to read / I like reading </li></ul><ul><li>Some verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund , but THEIR MEANINGS ARE NOT THE SAME </li></ul><ul><li>I will remember to call her. (I will be sure to call her in the future.) </li></ul><ul><li>I remember calling her. (I have the memory of calling her in the past.) </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Gerunds are often used when actions are real, </li></ul><ul><li>concrete or completed: </li></ul><ul><li>I stopped smoking.   (The smoking was real and happened until I stopped.)   </li></ul><ul><li>Infinitives are often used when actions are unreal, abstract, or future: </li></ul><ul><li>I stopped to smoke.  (I was doing something else, and I stopped; the smoking had not happened yet.) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Summary table for (to) infinitive and gerund To infinitive Gerund (-ing forms) <ul><li>Use as subject </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: To smoke is bad for you. </li></ul><ul><li>Use as subject (more common) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Smoking is bad for you. </li></ul><ul><li>To say why we do things </li></ul><ul><li>(purpose) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: I got up early to catch the 7am train. </li></ul><ul><li>After prepositions (on, in, before, for, without, after … etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: You can ’ t live without eating. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Thank you for listening. </li></ul>3. After some verbs (expect, afford, want, need, prepare, refuse, choose, fail, learn, promise, hesitate...etc) Eg: I expect to pass the exams. 3. After some verbs (eg: dislike, enjoy, practise, mind, avoid, consider, discuss, finish, keep, miss, suggest, keep, can ’ t help … etc) Eg: I ’ ll finish studying in June.
  28. 28. Summary table for (to) infinitive and gerund To infinitive Gerund (ing forms) 4. After some adjectives and nouns : Adj = easy, happy, glad, nice, excited, ready, difficult, dangerous ...etc; Noun = work , money to spend, something to drink, different ways to protect her. … etc) Eg: She is ready to leave. (adj) Eg: I am glad to see you. (adj) Eg: I ’ ve got work to do. (n) <ul><li>After phrasal verbs: </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: I am not good at dancing. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: I am not interested in singing. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: John will give up smoking. </li></ul>5. Some verbs can be followed by either gerund or (to) infinitive: Eg: I love going to school/I love to go to school 5. Eg: Begin, continue, hate, love, start … etc.
  29. 29. Summary table for (to) infinitive and gerund To infinitive Gerund (ing forms) 6. Used in general sense (Eg: love, like, hate, prefer..etc) Eg: I like swimming. <ul><li>Used in particular situations </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: I don ’ t like swimming on cold days. </li></ul><ul><li>No + gerund </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: No money, no talking. </li></ul>* Some words can use both to-infinitive and gerund with the same meaning. ( Eg: love, like, begin, start, intend, continue..etc) <ul><li>Stop + gerund. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Stop talking, stop writing, stop walking … etc. </li></ul>* Some words can use both to-infinitive and gerund with different meaning. (Eg: remember, try..etc)