EDM 703: INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP
“STUDENT ABILITIES AND
CHALLENGES”
SITI MARISSA BINTI HUSSIN
2012510817
Federal Definition under IDEA Specific
Learning Disability means:
A disorder in one or more of the
basic psychological pro...
TEACHING STUDENTS WITH
ABILITY DIFFERENCES
Ability grouping, also known as tracking, is the practice of
grouping children ...
The two most common forms of ability
grouping are:
Within-class grouping - a teacher's
practice of putting students of sim...
STUDENTS WHO ARE GIFTED
AND TALENTED
• Perceptions of giftedness vary even among
gifted education specialists. At one time...
(Renzulli, 1986)
Above Average
Intelligence
• Advanced
vocabulary
• Good memory
• Learns very
quickly and
easily
Task
Comm...
STUDENTS WITH LEARNING
CHALLENGES
• ADHD
• INATTENTIVE
• IMPULSIVE
• HYPERACTIVE
• AUTISM &
ASPEGER
• AUTISM
• ASPEGER
• L...
INATTENTIVE SYMPTOMS
• Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in
schoolwork
• Has difficulty ...
IMPULSIVE SYMPTOMS
• Blurts out answers before questions have been completed
• Has difficulty awaiting turn
• Interrupts o...
HYPERACTIVE SYMPTOMS
• Fidgets with hands or feet in seat
• Leaves seat when remaining seated is expected
• Runs about or ...
READING
• There are two types of learning disabilities in reading. Basic reading problems
occur when there is difficulty u...
WRITING
• Learning disabilities in writing can involve the physical
act of writing or the mental activity of comprehending...
PRE-SCHOOL SIGNS &
SYMPTOMS
• Problems pronouncing words
• Trouble finding the right word
• Difficulty rhyming
• Trouble l...
AGES 5-9 SYMPTOMS
• Trouble learning the connection between letters and sounds
• Unable to blend sounds to make words
• Co...
AGES 10-13 SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
• Difficulty with reading comprehension or math skills
• Trouble with open-ended test question...
AUTISM
• Social interactions and relationships.
• Significant problems developing nonverbal
communication skills, such as ...
ASPEGER
• The exact cause of Asperger's syndrome is not known. And there is no
known way to prevent it. It tends to run in...
EFFECTIVE TEACHING IN
INCLUSIVE CLASSROOM
• Usually, two teachers
 Sometimes, a general education teacher and a
special e...
PRO’S
• Disabled students do as well, if not better,
in an inclusive classroom compared to a
separate classroom.
• Inclusi...
CON’S
• Not all students learn best in
this environment.
• Some students need more
individualized instruction, at a
slower...
BENEFIT FOR TEACHERS
• Learn from each other
• Begin to see class as one large group, as
opposed to two separate groups
• ...
Strategies to Promote Successful
Inclusion
Use
consistent
classroom
routines
Give visual
instructions
Watch for
signs of
a...
CONCLUSION
• Although there are
downsides to full inclusion
classrooms, it seems that
the research shows the
benefits outw...
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 Gaillard, P. (n.d.). The inclusion classroom. Retrieved from
http://techinclusion.tripod.com/
 Inclusion i...
STUDENTS DISABILITIES AND CHALLENGES
STUDENTS DISABILITIES AND CHALLENGES
STUDENTS DISABILITIES AND CHALLENGES
STUDENTS DISABILITIES AND CHALLENGES
STUDENTS DISABILITIES AND CHALLENGES
STUDENTS DISABILITIES AND CHALLENGES
STUDENTS DISABILITIES AND CHALLENGES
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STUDENTS DISABILITIES AND CHALLENGES

  1. 1. EDM 703: INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP “STUDENT ABILITIES AND CHALLENGES” SITI MARISSA BINTI HUSSIN 2012510817
  2. 2. Federal Definition under IDEA Specific Learning Disability means: A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations.
  3. 3. TEACHING STUDENTS WITH ABILITY DIFFERENCES Ability grouping, also known as tracking, is the practice of grouping children together according to their talents in the classroom. At the elementary school level, the divisions sound harmless enough - kids are divided into the Bluebirds and Redbirds. But in secondary schools, the stratification becomes more obvious as students assume their places in the tracking system.
  4. 4. The two most common forms of ability grouping are: Within-class grouping - a teacher's practice of putting students of similar ability into small groups usually for reading or math instruction Between-class grouping - a school's practice of separating students into different classes, courses, or course sequences (curricular tracks) based on their academic achievement
  5. 5. STUDENTS WHO ARE GIFTED AND TALENTED • Perceptions of giftedness vary even among gifted education specialists. At one time "gifted" was the term used to describe those students who learned quickly and obtained high scores on IQ tests. • While these abilities still contribute to our understanding of giftedness, the findings of many researchers have given us a deeper understanding of intelligence. • Today "giftedness" is generally accepted to include a wide range of attributes, from the traditional intellectual measures to interpersonal abilities.
  6. 6. (Renzulli, 1986) Above Average Intelligence • Advanced vocabulary • Good memory • Learns very quickly and easily Task Commitment • High level of energy • Perseveres; does not give up easily when working • Assumes responsibility Creativity • Questioning; very curious about many topics • Has many ideas (fluent) • Sees things in varied ways (flexible)
  7. 7. STUDENTS WITH LEARNING CHALLENGES • ADHD • INATTENTIVE • IMPULSIVE • HYPERACTIVE • AUTISM & ASPEGER • AUTISM • ASPEGER • LEARNING DISABILIIES • READING (dyslexia) • WRITING (dysgraphia)
  8. 8. INATTENTIVE SYMPTOMS • Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork • Has difficulty keeping attention during tasks or play • Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly • Has problems organizing tasks and activities • Avoids or dislikes tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork) • Often loses toys, assignments, pencils, books, or tools needed for tasks or activities • Is easily distracted
  9. 9. IMPULSIVE SYMPTOMS • Blurts out answers before questions have been completed • Has difficulty awaiting turn • Interrupts or intrudes on others (butts into conversations or games)
  10. 10. HYPERACTIVE SYMPTOMS • Fidgets with hands or feet in seat • Leaves seat when remaining seated is expected • Runs about or climbs in inappropriate situations • Has problems playing or working quietly • Is often "on the go," acts as if "driven by a motor” • Talks excessively
  11. 11. READING • There are two types of learning disabilities in reading. Basic reading problems occur when there is difficulty understanding the relationship between sounds, letters and words. Reading comprehension problems occur when there is an inability to grasp the meaning of words, phrases, and paragraphs. • Signs of reading difficulty include problems with: 1. letter and word recognition 2. understanding words and ideas 3. reading speed and fluency 4. general vocabulary skills
  12. 12. WRITING • Learning disabilities in writing can involve the physical act of writing or the mental activity of comprehending and synthesizing information. Basic writing disorder refers to physical difficulty forming words and letters. Expressive writing disability indicates a struggle to organize thoughts on paper. • Symptoms of a written language learning disability revolve around the act of writing. They include problems with: 1. neatness and consistency of writing 2. accurately copying letters and words 3. spelling consistency 4. writing organization and coherence
  13. 13. PRE-SCHOOL SIGNS & SYMPTOMS • Problems pronouncing words • Trouble finding the right word • Difficulty rhyming • Trouble learning the alphabet, numbers, colors, shapes, days of the week • Difficulty following directions or learning routines • Difficulty controlling crayons, pencils, and scissors or coloring within the lines • Trouble with buttons, zippers, snaps, learning to tie shoes
  14. 14. AGES 5-9 SYMPTOMS • Trouble learning the connection between letters and sounds • Unable to blend sounds to make words • Confuses basic words when reading • Consistently misspells words and makes frequent reading errors • Trouble learning basic math concepts • Difficulty telling time and remembering sequences • Slow to learn new skills
  15. 15. AGES 10-13 SIGNS & SYMPTOMS • Difficulty with reading comprehension or math skills • Trouble with open-ended test questions and word problems • Dislikes reading and writing; avoids reading aloud • Spells the same word differently in a single document • Poor organizational skills (bedroom, homework, desk is messy and disorganized) • Trouble following classroom discussions and expressing thoughts aloud • Poor handwriting
  16. 16. AUTISM • Social interactions and relationships. • Significant problems developing nonverbal communication skills, such as eye contact, facial expression and body posture. • Verbal and nonverbal communication • Problems taking steps to start a conversation. Also, people with autism have difficulties continuing a conversation after it has begun. • Limited interests in activities or play • An unusual focus on pieces. Younger children with autism often focus on parts of toys, such as the wheels on a car, rather than playing with the entire toy.
  17. 17. ASPEGER • The exact cause of Asperger's syndrome is not known. And there is no known way to prevent it. It tends to run in families. So researchers are doing studies to look for a genetic cause. Asperger's syndrome is more common in males than in females. • Asperger's syndrome is a lifelong condition, but symptoms tend to improve over time. Adults with this condition can learn to understand their own strengths and weaknesses. And they can improve their social skills. • Like fixed routine. Change is hard for them. • May be bothered by loud noises, lights, or strong tastes or textures. • May have poor handwriting or have trouble with other motor skills, such as riding a bike.
  18. 18. EFFECTIVE TEACHING IN INCLUSIVE CLASSROOM • Usually, two teachers  Sometimes, a general education teacher and a special education assistant • Students consist of special education and general education students, taught together • Difficult to tell which students have IEP’s and which do not
  19. 19. PRO’S • Disabled students do as well, if not better, in an inclusive classroom compared to a separate classroom. • Inclusion helps with socialization of disabled students. • Advanced students become more accepting, and start to offer help to their struggling peers.
  20. 20. CON’S • Not all students learn best in this environment. • Some students need more individualized instruction, at a slower pace. • A general education classroom can provide too much stimuli.
  21. 21. BENEFIT FOR TEACHERS • Learn from each other • Begin to see class as one large group, as opposed to two separate groups • Students with varying needs • Skills are developed and refined
  22. 22. Strategies to Promote Successful Inclusion Use consistent classroom routines Give visual instructions Watch for signs of anxiety or stress Understand need for transition Structure the layout of the room Clearly explain purpose of all assignments Make use of special interests
  23. 23. CONCLUSION • Although there are downsides to full inclusion classrooms, it seems that the research shows the benefits outweigh the risks. • Provides benefits for all students and teachers/assistants involved.
  24. 24. BIBLIOGRAPHY  Gaillard, P. (n.d.). The inclusion classroom. Retrieved from http://techinclusion.tripod.com/  Inclusion in the classroom. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/kennedy_files/InclusioninClassroom Tips.pdf

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