Presidential Elections• Every 4 years – Election Day: The 1st Tuesday after the 1st Monday in November.• Winner-Take-All System – The Electoral College: 538 members • Each state’s representation is based upon membership in the Congress. • Possible to win popular vote but not Electoral College – 1824, 1876, 1888, and 2000
Inauguration• January 20th – Oath of Office • “I do solemnly swear, that I will faithfully execute the office of the President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.” – Inaugural Address – March from the Capitol Building to White House
Qualifications• Constitutional – Natural Born Citizen – 35 years old – 14 year resident of U.S.• Realistic – Government Experience – Money – Political Beliefs – Personality – Speaking Ability
Term and Salary• 22nd Amendment – passed in 1953 – 2 full terms of 4 years – 10 years• Salary – $400,000 a year ($198,000 for VP) – $50,000 for expenses connected with duties
Benefits• $100,000 for Travel Expenses• Secret Service• Air Force One, Limo, Helicopters, ETC.• Free medical, dental, and surgical care• Cleaning and Cooking Staff• Entertainment Expense Account• Pension: $150,000 a year
The White House• 132 rooms• Pool• bowling alley• tennis court• movie theatre• Billiard Room• Jogging Track• Putting Green
Powers of the President1. Mandate • Power coming into office after election • The Will of the People (how big did you win?)2. Constitutional • Commander of the nation’s military and security • Power of nomination • Foreign Policy Direction
Powers of the President3. Crisis Power – What do you do when things go bad? • FDR: The Great Depression • Bush: 9/11 • Jefferson: The Louisiana Purchase • Lincoln: The Civil War4. Mass Media Power – Press Conferences – State of the Union – Inaugural Address
Limits to Presidential Power• Congressional – Congressional Override on Veto – War Powers Act of 1973 • Limit of 60 days for troop deployment without permission of Congress – Power of the Purse, Impeachment, and Confirmation Power• Court – Judicial Review of Legislation and Power
Roles of the Presidency1. Head of State • Ceremonial Leader – Host other leaders2. Chief Legislator • Presidential Plan for Better America • State of the Union3. Chief Politician • Leader of Political Party
Roles of the Presidency1. Chief Diplomat • Treaties with foreign governments pending Congressional approval • Executive Agreements • Recognition of foreign governments (Cuba)2. Commander in Chief • Armed Forces commander • President cannot declare war, only suggest it. • Nuclear Power • Protect from All Enemies – both foreign and domestic
Roles of the Presidency1. Chief Executive • Executive Orders: have the rule of law • Appointment Power: nomination to positions • Removal Power • Impoundment: stop Congressional funding • Reprieves: postponement of legal punishment • Pardons: release from legal punishment • Amnesty: group pardons (Vietnam draft dodgers)
Role of Vice President• Presides over the Senate• Takes over the Presidency in case of death or disability• New Roles: – Diplomatic Relations – Support of Presidential Platform – National Security Council member Joe Biden
The Cabinet• 15 Secretaries, VP and other advisors• How do you get in? 1. Must have expertise in the area of policy 2. Usually different demographically – Geographic, Race, Gender, Religion, etc. 3. Administrative Experience 4. Must be confirmed by Congress
Support Staff• Executive Office of the President (EOP) – People that directly assist in the White House.• White House Staff – Press Secretary, Chief of Staff• Office of Management and Budget (OMB) – Largest Agency in the EOP – Helps write, organize, and manage the budget.
Support Staff• National Security Council (NSC) – Helps to Coordinate military and foreign policy – Joint Chiefs of Staff, VP, Secretary of State + Defense• Council of Economic Advisors – Helps to organize economic policies and answer the long- range questions.
Why it is tough to be President• Qualities necessary 1. New ideas must be bold and solve problems 2. Understanding the Public 3. Ability to Communicate 4. Sense of Timing 5. Openness to new ideas 6. Flexibility 7. Compromise with Congress 8. Courage to stand alone 9. Avoiding Isolation
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