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Transition1for m.ed Transition1for m.ed Presentation Transcript

  • Created in PowerPoint 2010 (beta) TRANSITION PLANNING MRUTYUNJAYA MISHRA LECTURER, H.I. DSMRU, LUCKNOW
  • JUST THINK????
    • Hemant is studying in a special pre school for hearing impaired.
    • Palak, studying in a special school is prepared to go to a normal school.
    • Shahrukh is studying in secondary school for the hearing impaired.
    • Blessen is ready to join a vocational course after finishing the senior secondary school from a special school.
    • Manjula is going to join a company as a data entry operator.
  • introduction
    • We all experience many transitions in our lives.
    • It is a lifelong activity.
    • Certain important elements are associated with the chances of any transition being successful .(Bruder & Chandler,1996;Patton &Dunn,1998)
  • Transition planning
    • According to Patton & Dunn (1998),The 3 key elements which are necessary for transition planning to be successful include:
      • Comprehensive planning
      • Implementation of a plan of action
      • Coordination
  • Comprehensive planning
    • It involves 2 major activities
      • Assessment
      • Individual planning
      • Assessment should include two separate and related activities
        • Evaluation of demands and requirement of the setting to which the person is going
        • Evaluation of the individual competency to deal with future demands
  • Comprehensive planning contd…
    • Individual planning is the formal or informal process of formulating an action plan to address the areas of concern.
  • Plan of action
    • It refers to follow through on the planning that was previously done.
    • Wonderful needs assessment and resulting comprehensive planning are meaningless if the plans are not carried out in an efficient and effective way.
  • Coordination
    • It refers to the cooperative efforts between the sending environment and receiving environment.
    • Ideally, representatives from specific receiving settings would participate actively in the individual planning phase.
    • However this is not possible always to make such coordination.
    • As a result coordination means good communictaion.
  • Why?
    • If transition planning is not conducted at all or is conducted ineffectively, several problems are likely to arise. They may include following:
    • Interruption of needed services.
    • Termination of needed services through oversight or lack of information.
    • Inadequate preparation of the student in the sending environment.
    • Inadequate preparation of the receiving environment.
  • Range of transition Birth Hospital/Home Preschool Home/Preschool Public setting/Private setting Elementary Separate school/Regular school Special education/General education Secondary Special education/General education Early adulthood Single/Married Part time job/Career Middle adulthood Family care/Alternative care Residential employment/Community living Other adulthood Family relationship/Alone
  • Types of transition
    • There are generally two types of transition experienced by all human beings. They are
      • Vertical transition
      • Horizontal transition
  • Vertical transition
    • Throughout life we all experience many different transitions.
    • Some are predictable and normative and most people experience them.
    • These types of transition are referred as Developmental or Age based[ Wolery ,1989]and chronological[ Lazzari ,1991]
    • We can call it as vertical transition.
  • Vertical transition contd…
    • The transition from early intervention programme to pre-school settings is extraordinarily important and is addressed elsewhere( Hansen & Lynch , 1995).
    • The transition that has received the most attention in recent years is from special school to inclusive school and from school to work.
  • Entry into school
    • Preschool age students with special needs come to kindergarten from a variety of settings.
    • Some of these children were identified during their first 2 years of life.
    • For these young children, Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) should have been developed and as a part of the IFSP, transition planning should have occurred.
    • But most of the students receive special education without being identified.
  • Entry into school CONTD…
    • All students benefit from being prepared to enter school, whether the sending environment is home / regular school / early childhood special education programme or other such programme.
    • The importance of this is reflected in the attention it has been given in the early childhood literature(Garden, Smith & Flower, 1983, Haines ,1992, Wolery, 1989).
  • Movement from elementary to secondary school
    • Unique challenges exist as a child moves from elementary to middle school(Robinson, Braxdale & Colson, 1985),from middle to high school ( Wells ,1996).
    • Mckenzie and Houck (1993) point out, this must be accomplished before students arrive at secondary level by maximizing communication and implementing pre transition programme(i.e. the essence of coordination).
  • Movement from elementary to secondary school contd…
    • Robinson et al.( 1985) recommended that a transition curriculum be implemented during this time.
    • It may include academic, self management or study skills, social/adaptive behaviour.
    • This type of curriculum include skill development in areas that most teachers do not typically cover at the elementary level.
  • Horizontal transition
    • There are some other transition apart from vertical transition which are non-normative, more individual specific and not predictable.
    • Some people will experience them, others will not.
    • Wolery [1989]described these as non-developmental and Lazzari [1991]as ongoing.
    • We can call these as horizontal transition.
  • Horizontal transition Contd…
    • Lazzari (1991) addressed two types of transition under this:
      • Movement from segregated to inclusive.
      • Movement from outside facility to a public school settings.
  • Inclusion in general education classrooms
    • The topic that has received most attention in recent years in the field of special education is inclusion.
    • There has been some emotionally charged debate on the topic with much of the controversy focusing on the issue of ‘full’ inclusion.
    • In order to survive in the new settings, the children with special needs has to demonstrate the survival skills required in the general education classroom.
  • Contd…
    • Wood & Miederhoff (1988) generated a three part checklist that assess the student’s current level of competence in relation to the demands of the classroom settings.
    • The 3 major domain given by them are
      • Classroom (Physical, Instructional)
      • Socio personal relation (Interpersonal)
      • Related Environment( Co curricular & Extra curricular).
  • Contd…
    • George & Lewis (1991) were interested in students’ readiness to move inclusive settings and they developed ‘Classroom Inventory Checklist’ to examine various dimensions of the receiving class room.
    • The main intention of the assessment is to create conditions in the special education classroom that are similar to the general education classroom.
  • Contd…
    • Another instrument that is useful for transition to the general education settings is ‘Classroom survival skills inventory’ ( Smith ,1986).
    • The 4 domains that comprise this inventory are
      • Self related skill
      • Task related skill
      • Interpersonal skill
      • Environmental awareness
  • Contd…
    • For secondary level classroom, one of the best instrument for examining the explicit aspect is ‘Classroom Variable Analysis’ developed by Salend & Vigilianti ( 1982).
    • The instrument covers seven critical areas that should be examined to determine areas in which a student may need skill development or support.
  • Contd…
    • The areas included in the instruments are:
      • Instructional materials and support personnel
      • Presentation of subject matter
      • Learner response variable
      • Student evaluation
      • Classroom management
      • Social interaction
      • Physical design
  • Movement from nonschool to school
    • Examples of such type of transition are sending environments such as private school, correctional facilities and residential facilities.
    • In this case communication and knowledge regarding both sending and receiving environments are desperately needed because there is limited or no communication between settings.
    • Tyler &Mira (1999) emphasized that transition planning must including preparing school staff, parents, classmate along with students
  • TRANSITION PLANNING PROCESS
  • TRANSITION PLANNING PROCESS
    • The first task is assessment of transition needs which ideally involves obtaining information from school based sources, the student and the family.
    • Although going to this point may require further assessment, after needs are identified, a comprehensive transition plan should be developed.
    • With the needs of the students in mind this plan should include knowledge and skill acquisition goals as well as linkage goals.
  • Key component of transition process
    • School related activities/ Issues at the secondary level(e.g. curriculum and transition planning).
    • Transition management issues(e.g. linkage between school and post school services)
    • Community issues (Availability of post school option)
  • Key areas of transition planning
    • Various organizational schemes are available for conceptualizing different areas of adulthood.
    • In many instances emphasis is given to the employment/education domains
    • However equal attention needs to be given to other adult domains as well.
  • Key areas of transition planning Contd…
    • Clarke & Patton(1997) give some major domains of adulthood. These are
      • Community participation
      • Daily living
      • Employment
      • Financial management
      • Health
      • Independent living
      • Leisure
      • Post secondary education
      • Social skill
      • Vocational skill
  • Individualized Transition Plan
  • Individualized Transition Plan
    • The ITP may differ from the purpose of IEP.
    • While IEP is designed for the fulfillment of weak areas ITP is designed for Transition which is an outcome oriented process.
    • Another tool with great utility for students, parents, school personnel and adult service provider is the transition portfolio.
    • A portfolio should contain a significant amount of information about the student and their specific transition plan.
  • Individualized Transition Plan contd…
    • A successful transition plan is a series of well planned steps that results in placement of child and family into another settings
    • Successful transitions are a primary goal of early childhood intervention (Fowler,1992;Salisbury & Vincent,1990).
    • In the field of Early Childhood Intervention (ECI) transition is defined as “the process of moving from one programme to another or from one service delivery mode to another(Chandler,1992 )
  • Individualized Transition Plan contd…
    • According to Wolery(1989) transition planning should fulfill 4 goals:
      • To ensure continuity of services
      • To minimize disruption to the family system by facilitating adaptation to change
      • To ensure that children are prepared to function in the receiving Programme
      • To fulfill the legal requirement
  • Steps in transition process
  • Steps in transition
    • 1. Organise the transition team
      • Identify school personnel.
      • Identify adult service providers and employers.
      • Identify significant care givers/ parents.
    • 2. Hold the initial transition team meeting
      • Develop ITP as a part of IEP and IWRP
      • Assign agency team member responsibilities (Individualized Written Rehabilitation Plan, IWRP)
  • Steps in transition contd…
    • 3. Implement the ITP goals
          • Use Trans disciplinary model to encourage.
          • As student approaches end of School program increase involvement of adult service providers.
    • Update ITP annually and more often as needed.
    • 4. Hold a job placement planning Meting
      • Target job for students.
      • Assign agency responsibilities for job placement and follow up services.
      • Place student in Job.
  • Components of Transition Planning
    • The transition may be viewed as a 3 way process.
            • Work preparation training during school year.
            • Identification and development of meaningful career development and community lifestyle option.
            • Planning transition from school to work. ( Clarke, Kolstoe,1994, Wehman,1992 )
    • Transition process is enacted by a group of professional working together known as Transition core Team, (Wehman, 1992)
  • Transition team
    • Team member should include professionals representing
      • Special Education
      • Vocational Rehabilitation
      • Vocational Education
      • Developmental disabilities
      • Social services
      • Medical services
      • Parent
      • Employees / Adult Service providers
  • Recent trend
    • In the recent year the main focus is on the transition from segregation to inclusion.
    • The hearing impaired children face a lot of problems in moving from a special school to an inclusive school.
    • The child finds himself/herself in a deep trouble in the new situation.
  • What has to be done?
    • While planning the transition for a child with hearing impaired a lot of cautions has to be taken like:
      • Determining the level of the student or checking the preparedness of the student who is moving from special school to inclusive school.
      • Determining the demands in the inclusive settings
      • Making the transition plan for the child
      • Preparing the children in inclusive setting to accept the child with hearing impairment.
      • Sensitizing the school administrators and policy makers regarding the necessity of transition plan.
  • References
    • Bruder, M.B., & Chandler, L. (1996). Transition. In S.L. Odom and M.E. McLean (Eds.), Early intervention/early childhood special education: Recommended practices (pp. 287-307). Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes. (371.904720973 ODO - Book)
    • Patton, J., & Dunn, C. (1998). Transition from school to young adulthood: Basic concepts and recommended practices. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
    • Wolery, M. (1989). Transitions in early childhood special education: Issues and Procedures. Focus on Exceptional Children, 22(2), 1-14.
    • Hanson, M J and Lynch, E W (1995). Early Intervention. Pro-Ed., Austin, Texas.
    • Lazzari, A. M. (1991). The transition sourcebook: A practical guide for early intervention
    • programs . Tucson, AZ: Communication Skill Builders.
    • Robinson, S. M., Braxdale, C. T., & Colson, S. E. (1988). Preparing dysfunctional learners to enter junior high school: A transitional curriculum. In E. L. Meyen, G. A.
    • Wells, M. C. (1996). Literacies lost: When students move from a progressive middle school to a traditional high school. New York: Teachers College Press. 
    • McKenzie, R.G., & Houk, C.S. (1993). Across the great divide: Transition from elementary to secondary settings for students with mild disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children. 25(2), 16-20.
    • Wood, J.W., & Miederhoff, J.W. (1988). Adapting lesson plans for the mainstreamed student. Clearing House, 61, 269-276.
    • Clark, G. M., & Patton, J. R. (1997). Transition planning inventory: Administration and resource guide. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
    • Tyler, J., & Mira, M. (1999). TBI in children and adolescents. Pro-Ed: Austin.
    • Chandler, L.K. (1992). Promoting children’s social/survival skills as a strategy for transition to mainstreamed kindergarten programs. In S.L. Odom, S.R. McConnell, and M.A. McEvoy (Eds.), Social competence of young children with disabilities: Issues and strategies for intervention (pp. 245-276). Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes. (371.9 ODO - Book).
    • Wehman, P. (1992). Transition for young people with disabilities. Challenges for the 1990s. Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 27(2), 112–118
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