Transition1for m.ed


Published on

this is the presentation made for m.ed level; students

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • To replace the sentiment here follow these instructions: Type your sentiment in the font of your choice. I’ve used “Frosty” here, but that won’t work on all computers (although I’ve saved it as a picture – so we’re OK with this exact sentiment), so choose something safe, like arial or times roman (not as cute, I know). Go to Slide Show > Animations > Custom Animation (PPT 2003) or Animations > Custom Animation. Select the existing sentiment. In the animation task pane, You’ll see that it’s called “Picture 2” and that it’s animated to Fade In, Very Fast, With Previous. With the new sentiment you created, animate it the same way – Fade In, Very Fast, With Previous. In the animation task pane select this new animation and drag it so it’s located just under the Picture 2 animation. Move to the slide. Delete the “old” sentiment. Move yours’ into its place. Delete Sandy and type your name You’re set to go.
  • Transition1for m.ed

    2. 2. JUST THINK???? <ul><li>Hemant is studying in a special pre school for hearing impaired. </li></ul><ul><li>Palak, studying in a special school is prepared to go to a normal school. </li></ul><ul><li>Shahrukh is studying in secondary school for the hearing impaired. </li></ul><ul><li>Blessen is ready to join a vocational course after finishing the senior secondary school from a special school. </li></ul><ul><li>Manjula is going to join a company as a data entry operator. </li></ul>
    3. 3. introduction <ul><li>We all experience many transitions in our lives. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a lifelong activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain important elements are associated with the chances of any transition being successful .(Bruder & Chandler,1996;Patton &Dunn,1998) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Transition planning <ul><li>According to Patton & Dunn (1998),The 3 key elements which are necessary for transition planning to be successful include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation of a plan of action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Comprehensive planning <ul><li>It involves 2 major activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment should include two separate and related activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of demands and requirement of the setting to which the person is going </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of the individual competency to deal with future demands </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Comprehensive planning contd… <ul><li>Individual planning is the formal or informal process of formulating an action plan to address the areas of concern. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Plan of action <ul><li>It refers to follow through on the planning that was previously done. </li></ul><ul><li>Wonderful needs assessment and resulting comprehensive planning are meaningless if the plans are not carried out in an efficient and effective way. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Coordination <ul><li>It refers to the cooperative efforts between the sending environment and receiving environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally, representatives from specific receiving settings would participate actively in the individual planning phase. </li></ul><ul><li>However this is not possible always to make such coordination. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result coordination means good communictaion. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Why? <ul><li>If transition planning is not conducted at all or is conducted ineffectively, several problems are likely to arise. They may include following: </li></ul><ul><li>Interruption of needed services. </li></ul><ul><li>Termination of needed services through oversight or lack of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate preparation of the student in the sending environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate preparation of the receiving environment. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Range of transition Birth Hospital/Home Preschool Home/Preschool Public setting/Private setting Elementary Separate school/Regular school Special education/General education Secondary Special education/General education Early adulthood Single/Married Part time job/Career Middle adulthood Family care/Alternative care Residential employment/Community living Other adulthood Family relationship/Alone
    11. 11. Types of transition <ul><li>There are generally two types of transition experienced by all human beings. They are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical transition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal transition </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Vertical transition <ul><li>Throughout life we all experience many different transitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are predictable and normative and most people experience them. </li></ul><ul><li>These types of transition are referred as Developmental or Age based[ Wolery ,1989]and chronological[ Lazzari ,1991] </li></ul><ul><li>We can call it as vertical transition. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Vertical transition contd… <ul><li>The transition from early intervention programme to pre-school settings is extraordinarily important and is addressed elsewhere( Hansen & Lynch , 1995). </li></ul><ul><li>The transition that has received the most attention in recent years is from special school to inclusive school and from school to work. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Entry into school <ul><li>Preschool age students with special needs come to kindergarten from a variety of settings. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these children were identified during their first 2 years of life. </li></ul><ul><li>For these young children, Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) should have been developed and as a part of the IFSP, transition planning should have occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>But most of the students receive special education without being identified. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Entry into school CONTD… <ul><li>All students benefit from being prepared to enter school, whether the sending environment is home / regular school / early childhood special education programme or other such programme. </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of this is reflected in the attention it has been given in the early childhood literature(Garden, Smith & Flower, 1983, Haines ,1992, Wolery, 1989). </li></ul>
    16. 16. Movement from elementary to secondary school <ul><li>Unique challenges exist as a child moves from elementary to middle school(Robinson, Braxdale & Colson, 1985),from middle to high school ( Wells ,1996). </li></ul><ul><li>Mckenzie and Houck (1993) point out, this must be accomplished before students arrive at secondary level by maximizing communication and implementing pre transition programme(i.e. the essence of coordination). </li></ul>
    17. 17. Movement from elementary to secondary school contd… <ul><li>Robinson et al.( 1985) recommended that a transition curriculum be implemented during this time. </li></ul><ul><li>It may include academic, self management or study skills, social/adaptive behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>This type of curriculum include skill development in areas that most teachers do not typically cover at the elementary level. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Horizontal transition <ul><li>There are some other transition apart from vertical transition which are non-normative, more individual specific and not predictable. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people will experience them, others will not. </li></ul><ul><li>Wolery [1989]described these as non-developmental and Lazzari [1991]as ongoing. </li></ul><ul><li>We can call these as horizontal transition. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Horizontal transition Contd… <ul><li>Lazzari (1991) addressed two types of transition under this: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement from segregated to inclusive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement from outside facility to a public school settings. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Inclusion in general education classrooms <ul><li>The topic that has received most attention in recent years in the field of special education is inclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>There has been some emotionally charged debate on the topic with much of the controversy focusing on the issue of ‘full’ inclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to survive in the new settings, the children with special needs has to demonstrate the survival skills required in the general education classroom. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Contd… <ul><li>Wood & Miederhoff (1988) generated a three part checklist that assess the student’s current level of competence in relation to the demands of the classroom settings. </li></ul><ul><li>The 3 major domain given by them are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom (Physical, Instructional) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio personal relation (Interpersonal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related Environment( Co curricular & Extra curricular). </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Contd… <ul><li>George & Lewis (1991) were interested in students’ readiness to move inclusive settings and they developed ‘Classroom Inventory Checklist’ to examine various dimensions of the receiving class room. </li></ul><ul><li>The main intention of the assessment is to create conditions in the special education classroom that are similar to the general education classroom. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Contd… <ul><li>Another instrument that is useful for transition to the general education settings is ‘Classroom survival skills inventory’ ( Smith ,1986). </li></ul><ul><li>The 4 domains that comprise this inventory are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self related skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task related skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental awareness </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Contd… <ul><li>For secondary level classroom, one of the best instrument for examining the explicit aspect is ‘Classroom Variable Analysis’ developed by Salend & Vigilianti ( 1982). </li></ul><ul><li>The instrument covers seven critical areas that should be examined to determine areas in which a student may need skill development or support. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Contd… <ul><li>The areas included in the instruments are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional materials and support personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of subject matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner response variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical design </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Movement from nonschool to school <ul><li>Examples of such type of transition are sending environments such as private school, correctional facilities and residential facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>In this case communication and knowledge regarding both sending and receiving environments are desperately needed because there is limited or no communication between settings. </li></ul><ul><li>Tyler &Mira (1999) emphasized that transition planning must including preparing school staff, parents, classmate along with students </li></ul>
    28. 28. TRANSITION PLANNING PROCESS <ul><li>The first task is assessment of transition needs which ideally involves obtaining information from school based sources, the student and the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Although going to this point may require further assessment, after needs are identified, a comprehensive transition plan should be developed. </li></ul><ul><li>With the needs of the students in mind this plan should include knowledge and skill acquisition goals as well as linkage goals. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Key component of transition process <ul><li>School related activities/ Issues at the secondary level(e.g. curriculum and transition planning). </li></ul><ul><li>Transition management issues(e.g. linkage between school and post school services) </li></ul><ul><li>Community issues (Availability of post school option) </li></ul>
    30. 30. Key areas of transition planning <ul><li>Various organizational schemes are available for conceptualizing different areas of adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>In many instances emphasis is given to the employment/education domains </li></ul><ul><li>However equal attention needs to be given to other adult domains as well. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Key areas of transition planning Contd… <ul><li>Clarke & Patton(1997) give some major domains of adulthood. These are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leisure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post secondary education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocational skill </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Individualized Transition Plan
    33. 33. Individualized Transition Plan <ul><li>The ITP may differ from the purpose of IEP. </li></ul><ul><li>While IEP is designed for the fulfillment of weak areas ITP is designed for Transition which is an outcome oriented process. </li></ul><ul><li>Another tool with great utility for students, parents, school personnel and adult service provider is the transition portfolio. </li></ul><ul><li>A portfolio should contain a significant amount of information about the student and their specific transition plan. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Individualized Transition Plan contd… <ul><li>A successful transition plan is a series of well planned steps that results in placement of child and family into another settings </li></ul><ul><li>Successful transitions are a primary goal of early childhood intervention (Fowler,1992;Salisbury & Vincent,1990). </li></ul><ul><li>In the field of Early Childhood Intervention (ECI) transition is defined as “the process of moving from one programme to another or from one service delivery mode to another(Chandler,1992 ) </li></ul>
    35. 35. Individualized Transition Plan contd… <ul><li>According to Wolery(1989) transition planning should fulfill 4 goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To ensure continuity of services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To minimize disruption to the family system by facilitating adaptation to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To ensure that children are prepared to function in the receiving Programme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To fulfill the legal requirement </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Steps in transition process
    37. 37. Steps in transition <ul><li>1. Organise the transition team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify school personnel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify adult service providers and employers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify significant care givers/ parents. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Hold the initial transition team meeting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop ITP as a part of IEP and IWRP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign agency team member responsibilities (Individualized Written Rehabilitation Plan, IWRP) </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Steps in transition contd… <ul><li>3. Implement the ITP goals </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Trans disciplinary model to encourage. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As student approaches end of School program increase involvement of adult service providers. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Update ITP annually and more often as needed. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Hold a job placement planning Meting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target job for students. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign agency responsibilities for job placement and follow up services. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place student in Job. </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Components of Transition Planning <ul><li>The transition may be viewed as a 3 way process. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work preparation training during school year. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identification and development of meaningful career development and community lifestyle option. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning transition from school to work. ( Clarke, Kolstoe,1994, Wehman,1992 ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Transition process is enacted by a group of professional working together known as Transition core Team, (Wehman, 1992) </li></ul>
    40. 40. Transition team <ul><li>Team member should include professionals representing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocational Rehabilitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocational Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees / Adult Service providers </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Recent trend <ul><li>In the recent year the main focus is on the transition from segregation to inclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>The hearing impaired children face a lot of problems in moving from a special school to an inclusive school. </li></ul><ul><li>The child finds himself/herself in a deep trouble in the new situation. </li></ul>
    42. 42. What has to be done? <ul><li>While planning the transition for a child with hearing impaired a lot of cautions has to be taken like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining the level of the student or checking the preparedness of the student who is moving from special school to inclusive school. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining the demands in the inclusive settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making the transition plan for the child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparing the children in inclusive setting to accept the child with hearing impairment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitizing the school administrators and policy makers regarding the necessity of transition plan. </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. References <ul><li>Bruder, M.B., & Chandler, L. (1996). Transition. In S.L. Odom and M.E. McLean (Eds.), Early intervention/early childhood special education: Recommended practices (pp. 287-307). Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes. (371.904720973 ODO - Book) </li></ul><ul><li>Patton, J., & Dunn, C. (1998). Transition from school to young adulthood: Basic concepts and recommended practices. Austin, TX: PRO-ED. </li></ul><ul><li>Wolery, M. (1989). Transitions in early childhood special education: Issues and Procedures. Focus on Exceptional Children, 22(2), 1-14. </li></ul><ul><li>Hanson, M J and Lynch, E W (1995). Early Intervention. Pro-Ed., Austin, Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>Lazzari, A. M. (1991). The transition sourcebook: A practical guide for early intervention </li></ul><ul><li>programs . Tucson, AZ: Communication Skill Builders. </li></ul><ul><li>Robinson, S. M., Braxdale, C. T., & Colson, S. E. (1988). Preparing dysfunctional learners to enter junior high school: A transitional curriculum. In E. L. Meyen, G. A. </li></ul><ul><li>Wells, M. C. (1996). Literacies lost: When students move from a progressive middle school to a traditional high school. New York: Teachers College Press.  </li></ul><ul><li>McKenzie, R.G., & Houk, C.S. (1993). Across the great divide: Transition from elementary to secondary settings for students with mild disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children. 25(2), 16-20. </li></ul><ul><li>Wood, J.W., & Miederhoff, J.W. (1988). Adapting lesson plans for the mainstreamed student. Clearing House, 61, 269-276. </li></ul><ul><li>Clark, G. M., & Patton, J. R. (1997). Transition planning inventory: Administration and resource guide. Austin, TX: PRO-ED. </li></ul><ul><li>Tyler, J., & Mira, M. (1999). TBI in children and adolescents. Pro-Ed: Austin. </li></ul><ul><li>Chandler, L.K. (1992). Promoting children’s social/survival skills as a strategy for transition to mainstreamed kindergarten programs. In S.L. Odom, S.R. McConnell, and M.A. McEvoy (Eds.), Social competence of young children with disabilities: Issues and strategies for intervention (pp. 245-276). Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes. (371.9 ODO - Book). </li></ul><ul><li>Wehman, P. (1992). Transition for young people with disabilities. Challenges for the 1990s. Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 27(2), 112–118 </li></ul>