Goan temples

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A presentation showing evolution of Goan temples from rock cut caves to present day modern temples.

A presentation showing evolution of Goan temples from rock cut caves to present day modern temples.

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  • 1. GOAN TEMPLES
  • 2. Pre-Portuguese Rulers of Goa  3rd – 4th Bhoja  4th – 5th Maurya  5th – 8th Chalukyas of Badami  8th – 10th Shilahara  9th – 14th Kadamba  13th – mid 14th Muslim Rulers  14th – 15th Vijayanagara kings  15th – 16th Bahmani  17th c. Marathas  17th c. Adil Shah  Portuguese defeated Marathas & Adil Shah The Goan architectural heritage is a rich assimilation of a number of cultural influences that have led to its evolution over a long period of time. Each period has made its own significant contribution in enriching the architectural vocabulary and no single period can be perceived in isolation.
  • 3. Map Showing The Goa Kadamba Kingdom
  • 4. Evolution Of Goan Temples Four Phases in the Evolution of the Goan Hindu Temple: • First Phase: Pre-Portuguese phase, Kadamba Dynasty ruled Goa and affected style of building temples. Most of the temples were ruined after portuguese inquisition but the only existing temple in Kadamba Dynasty which still stands is the Mahadev Temple at Tambdi Surla. • Second Phase: Neo-Romanisation of the Hindu Temple (17th Cent), when the elements of the Hindu temple were invested with Mannerist forms, and when the dome replaced the pyramidal or parabolidal tower over the sanctuary. Two temples belong to this period, the Saptakottishwar of Narvem, which adopted the dome even though octagonal in plan and the Santeri temple at Mardol. • Third Phase: Achieves a synthesis of the Neo-Roman and Maratha motifs and organises the Goan temple complexes (18th – mid – 19th centuries), beginning with the Shantadurga of Kavlem and continuing with Nageshi of Bandoda. Features of Baroque and Rococo styles were adopted at this time and combined with Maratha Forms like the Cypress Column, domed porches etc. • Fourth Phase: Completition of the Goan Hindu style (mid 19th – mid 20th centuries). Goan Hindu architects now worked on the basis of their establishment of idioms and abandoned their former dependance on church architecture. The temples look more monumental domestic structures, the temples in this phase include Ramnathi of Bandoda and Navdurga of Kundai
  • 5. 1 2 3 4
  • 6. Pre-Historic Goan Temples • Cave Temples: References to Brahminical shrines which included the Shaivite as well as Vaishnavite shrines are made in books specifying Goan temples. In Goa during c. 600-700 A. D. Buddhists also started utilising rock cut caves for their religious activity. The rock cut architectural activity continues even during 1100-1200 A.D. and these rock cut caves were excavated by Nath-Panthis. • Almost 2/3rd of Goa is Covered with Laterite. Therefore, locally available laterite hillocks were used for scooping out the caves. • Architecture activity of the Brahminical caves (Caves having Linga) began in Goa and first models were available in 400-500 A. D. • There are single-celled caves in Consua (Marmugao), Dabos, Karanzol & Sonal (Sattari), as well as multi-celled caves in Khandepar, Harvalem & Kodar. • The rock cut caves of Goa reveal developments that took place between the fall of Satavahanas and the rise of Kadambas.
  • 7. Caves at Harvalem
  • 8.  It is said Bhoja rulers selected Harvalem village intentionally because it is associated with Shiva.  The ancient shrine of Rudreshwar was built before the excavation of the caves.  These caves are excavated in a laterite hillock and have pillared façade.  These caves also have clearly portrayed cornice and properly scooped out entablature.  There are six cell resembling cubicles. Five of which are facing South and one faces South-east.  The square pithas in the cells are characteristic of Chalukyan lingas.  Lingas are made of schist and are detachable.
  • 9. The five lingas in Harvalem caves
  • 10. Cave at Khandepar
  • 11. Cave at Narve Pradakshina path Cave 1 Cave 3
  • 12. Cave at Rivona
  • 13. Pre- Portuguese temples of Goa
  • 14. • In Goa a classical example of the other oldest pre Portuguese era temple is the Temple of Shiva at Tambdi Surla in Sanguem taluka dating back to the Kadamba period circa 13th-14th century AD. • It is reflect of quite evolved Hindu temple form in India of the 7th century that holds the very principal temple architectural features. • The small, beautifully carved and perfectly proportioned black basalt temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva and its reminiscent of the temples at Aihole in neighboring Karnataka. • The temple has survived Muslim invasions and Portuguese persecution, in its almost perfect condition mainly due to its remote location in a clearing deep in the forest at the foot of the Western Ghats which surround the site in a sheer wall of impenetrable vegetation • The temple faces east so that the rays of the rising sun fall on the diety at the crack of dawn Mahadev Temple, Tambdi Surla
  • 15. • The temple consists of garbagriha, antarala, and a pillard nandi mandapa built of basalt. • The temple faces to the east. The mukhamandapa has three entrances, the main entrance faces the east and the two side entrances are facing the north and south respectively. • There are 10 pillars in mukhamandapa resting on Kakshasana. These pillars are plain except for the circular and horizontal floral bands on the central part of the shaft and bear the weight of gable shaped roof of mukhamandapa. • There are four central pillars on the raised circular platform of the mukhamandapa.Pillars have a square base and are divided by two bands(pattikas) on which stands the shaft which is also square and plain.
  • 16. mandapa antarala garbagriha Plan of Mahadev Temple
  • 17. The Shikhara which rises from the top of garbagriha is in the Vesara style and is in receding tiers.
  • 18. Mandap (pillared hall) There is a small mandap (pillared hall) and the inner sanctum is surrounded by a three-tired tower which is incomplete or which has been dismantled sometime in the distant past. The mandap is covered with a roof of plain grey sloping slabs.
  • 19. There is a linga (symbol of Lord Shiva)mounted on a pedestal inside the inner sanctum Naag devtas carved in stone.
  • 20. Shiva and Parvati Laxmi Narayana Vishnu with Garuda on his left Bas- relief figures of Lord Shiva, Lord Vishnu, and Lord Brahma with their respective consorts appear on panels at the sides of the temple. Bhairava Brahma
  • 21. Ceiling in the mandapa consists of stone carving in the form of petals. Ceiling in the antarala
  • 22. Detail on Wall Plinth Rounded pillar
  • 23. • There is a headless Nandi ( bull, Shiva’s vehicle) in the center of the mandap, surrounded by four columns. • The symbol of the kadamba kingdom, an elephant trampling a horse is carved on the base of one of the average Goan Temple. • The pierced stone screen carrying the figures of deities that surrounds the door of the vestibule is another notable feature. The headless nandi in the center of the mandap Elephant on the pillar
  • 24. Mahadev temple, Kurdi
  • 25. • Temple was built by the Kadambas during the 10th century. • Unique temple built with laterite stone. • Moved from its original location to the current one. • Temple was originally located about 17 km from its current position , in Kurdi on the banks of river Salaulem • The temple has been translocated brick by brick and placed at its current place.
  • 26. • The Mahadeva temple is built of laterite on a hard laterite ground and has no foundation. • The wall of the temple and the shikhara are constructed out of laterite but schist is used for the ceiling, door jamb and the pillars. • The laterite is brittle and has less tensile strength than the schist.
  • 27. Plan, elevation and section of Curdi temple
  • 28. • The Curdi temple consists of two parts. • The sanctum (garbagriha) and the mukha mandapa. • Externally the temple is 7mts long and 5 ½ mts wide. The garbagriha is square (2.10mtsx 2.10mts). The mukhamandapa is 2.10mts in length and 1.80mts in width. The sanctum is larger than the mukhamandapa. • However, Mitterwallner has identified the mukhamadapa as a porch and according to her the mukhamandapa is missing. • The evidences show that the temple is complete and the porch itself is the mukhamandapa. • The Shikhara can be designated as Vesara shikhara. It is the synthesis of the Rekha nagara and the Kadamba nagara styles. This kind of shikhara can be seen in later Chalukyan temples which represent an integration of North and South Indian styles. • The Vesara Shikhara rises from the entire area of the sanctum. • Like other temples from the coastal area in general, and Kadamba monuments in particular, the temple could not be provided with a gabled roof on account of its meager dimension.
  • 29. Ceiling Rear view of the temple Door frame
  • 30. Front porch Pillars The two schist pillars at the mukhamandapa have circular moulded pithas and the kanda is square. The upper part hads circular mouldings. Pilars are plain and has no decorative carvings.
  • 31. Nandi at the entrance of temple Two pillars that raise the porch
  • 32. MODERN TEMPLES
  • 33. Deepstambh The 5th phase of evolution is where a temple has Shrine, Antarala, Closed Mandapa, Open Mandapa, Porch, Tulsi Vrindavan, Deepstambh and Tank. The Deepstambh or the Lamp Tower is an octagonal turret, raised in front of the temple, from five to seven storeys high, each storey articulated with engaged dwarf columns at the corners, in between which, piercing the sides of the turret, are niches for the lamp. Two aspects can be developed in the lamp tower’s development : First, its all- over design, the sequence of stories with niches and the crowning domelet. Second, articulation of the storeys by engaged columns.
  • 34. Evolution Of Deepstambh Tulsivrindavan Piazza Cross Deepstambh
  • 35. Shri Lakshmi Narsimha Temple, Veling
  • 36. Site Plan of Shri Lakshmi Narsimha Temple, Veling
  • 37. • Modern temples in Goa have a Talav (Temple Tank) near the temple. • Many temples also have Pujari’s house in the temple premises. • Tulsivrindavan is a feature developed in Modern Goan Temples.
  • 38. Mhalasa Temple, Mardol • This temple is situated on the main road, near the temple of Manguesh in hamlet of mardol. The ancient temple of the Goddess was situated at Verna in salcete taluka. • The temple has a spacious open Sabhamandapa supported by seven pillars on both sides, with wooden terrace on top. • The ancillary deities and the spacious water tank are to be seen at the back of the temple.
  • 39. • Steps from either side of the entrance gate lead to the Naubatkhana where vejantaries sit to play their instruments. • It has two deepstambhs, one of copper and other with usual stone and masonry work. • By the side of the two towers is the Tulsi vrindavan. • On either sides of courtyards are agrashalas where religious functions are held. • There is also a yadnya mandap with homakhand which is used for homa. • The temple tank and a well are at the rear of the shrine.
  • 40. Side Elevation Front Elevation
  • 41. Mangueshi Temple, Ponda The Mangueshi Temple in Ponda was one of the several that were designed to match the tall and majestic churches that the Portuguesse had built in Goa. It soon became a source of Hindu resilience and pride. The original temple, located in Cortalim was destroyed by Portuguese in 1560.
  • 42. Temple Tank, Mangueshi
  • 43. Shri Shantadurga Temple, Kavlem
  • 44. The Shantadurga Temple at Kavlem combines several elements of Hindu Architecture. The beautiful free standing tower at the left and sharply sloping roofs of structures stand out,
  • 45. Gopal Ganesh Temple
  • 46. Views
  • 47. Sai Baba Temple, Borim
  • 48. Hanuman Temple, Ponda
  • 49. References • Socio-Cultural History of Goa , • Goa, Traveller’s architectural and historical guide, Antony Hutt • Moda Goa, Wendell Rodrigues • Socio Cultural History of Goa, Dr. V. R. Mitragotri • Goa, Olivinho JF Gomes • Best of Goa • Temples of Goa, Kamla Mankekar