A database management system (DBMS) consists of software that operates
databases, providing storage, access, security, backup and other facilities. Database
management systems can be categorized according to the database model that they
support, such as relational or XML, the type(s) of computer they support, such as a
server cluster or a mobile phone, the query language(s) that access the database, such
as SQL or XQuery, performance trade-offs, such as maximum scale or maximum
speed or others. Some DBMS cover more than one entry in these categories, e.g.,
supporting multiple query languages .
Using these facilities we intend to develop A Paperless SQL Based
Examination. This shall support a descriptive examination & multiple clients at a
Paperless examination is an important role of modern education, which can
effectively reduce the teachers’ workload and improve work efficiency. However, the
current paperless examination system mainly deals with the objective questions, it is
almost impossible to deal with subjective questions such as programming languages,
particular in SQL.
There is no such practical system as far as know. This article describes a novel
SQL-based paperless examination system, including objective questions as well as
SQL programming questions.
Paperless examinations play a very important role in the development of modern
education in that they effectively reduce teachers grading load and increase their
overall efficiency. In addition, paperless examinations reduce errors in grading and
promote the fairness of the examination. Up till now, we have already had a rich class
of paperless examination systems. However, those systems concentrate mostly on
dealing with objective questions and fall short on more subjective issues such as
programming. There are a few paperless examination systems that orient on
programming languages. For instance, the Paperless Examination System of C
Programming Language by Zhejiang University is a rather comprehensive system that
covers a complete series of functions, which include practice, testing, and grading.
For years <Principles of Database Systems>  course has been part of
computer science. It has been noticed that while teaching that the biggest challenge
the students encounter lies in applying the knowledge and concepts that they learn in
class to practice. 
Although we might be able to partially solve the problem by designated experiments;
the approach fails to guarantee prompt feedbacks on the accuracy of students
operation. Usually, students would have to submit experiment reports and get
feedbacks from the teacher who grades the reports. This mode has two fundamental
(1)Students do not get to know if their operation is correct in time. When they get
their graded reports back, which is normally quite a while after the experiment, they
would need to review the concepts that the experiment focuses on. This kind of lag
discounts the effectiveness of the practice and teaching .
(2) Teachers grading load increases significantly. And, inevitably errors in grading
occur. Therefore, we have designed a paperless examination system for SQL language
that allows students to execute SQL experiments and get tested directly. This system
frees teachers from the hassle and burden of grading, which enables them to focus .
2.1: Platform Choice:
The choice of the platform is governed by need of the requirements. The online
exam system requires use of a web based application that can present a descriptive
exam format for SQL DML statements. This application requires to present a highly
maintainable, secure platform which is provides high robustness, reliable, scalable,
updatable in order to acquire new features in near future to improve user acceptability.
2.1.1: Platform Options:
1) Microsoft .NET Based C#,ASP.NET:
ASP.NET is a web application framework developed and marketed by Microsoft
to allow programmers to build dynamic web sites, web applications and web
services. It was first released in January 2002 with version 1.0 of the .NET
Framework, and is the successor to Microsoft's Active Server Pages (ASP)
technology. ASP.NET is built on the Common Language Runtime (CLR),
allowing programmers to write ASP.NET code using any supported .NET
language. The ASP.NET SOAP extension framework allows ASP.NET
components to process SOAP messages .
Java Platform, Enterprise Edition or Java EE is a widely used platform for
server programming in the Java programming language. The Java platform
(Enterprise Edition) differs from the Java Standard Edition Platform (Java SE) in
that it adds libraries which provide functionality to deploy fault-tolerant,
distributed, multi-tier Java software, based largely on modular components
running on an application server.
2.2: J2EE As A Preferred Choice:
FIG 2.1: VARIOUS JAVA PLATFORMS
Open and standard based platform
Developing, deploying and managing n-tier, Web-enabled, server-centric
Component-based enterprise applications
Huge User Base
Cross Platform Technology
Easy availability of technical documents & community support
Platform Value for Developers:
1) Can use any J2EE implementation for development and deployment
– Use J2EE RI or Sun ONE Platform Edition which are free for development/
deployment and then use high-end commercial J2EE products for actual deployment
2) Vast amount of J2EE community resources
– Many J2EE related books, articles, tutorials, quality code you can use, best practice
guidelines, design patterns etc.
3)Can use off-the-shelf 3rd-party business components.
Value For Business –Customers:
-> Application portability
1) Many implementation choices are possible based on various requirements
– Price (free to high-end), scalability (single CPU to clustered model), reliability,
performance, tools, and more.
– Best of breed of applications and platforms
2) Large developer pool.
FIG 2.2: J2EE FEATURES
3.1: Online Paperless System:
The Spread of internet as a medium of choice for communication has brought rapid
changes in ICT (Information & communication Technologies) world over.
Educational field is no exception to this influence. Exams have traditionally been the
hall mark of acceptance of a student’s academic achievements. Examinations mainly
are carried out in descriptive formats.
Recently this trend has changed to introduction of MCQ based exams
which are online web based and provide adaptive characteristics as per a student’s
mental abilities. These exams are easy to conduct, provide instant results & are
capable of testing students at various facets of individual skills. 
Many reputed exams like GRE, TOEFL, and IELTS have chosen online exam
system as preferred choice due to numerous benefits they pose in comparison to
traditional exam systems. 
Many IT organizations are also contemplating to introduce course specific
examinations of descriptive format to test skills in a certain programming languages.
There are only a few systems which could process subjective questions which involve
judging programming language. One of the examples is the ‘C Language Paperless
Examination System’ developed by Zhejiang University; it embeds practice, tests,
marking and grading functions into one application . Such systems are hard to find
and implement due to the complexity involved & standardization issues of certain
The Structured Query Language (SQL) is of strong practical and applicable value. It
is also an important component of the compulsory paper--<An Introduction of
Database Systems>. At the moment, there is no practically feasible SQL Paperless
Examination system available. 
3.2 Oracle Reference architecture
Fig 3.1: ORACLE Reference Architecture for Online System.
An Oracle instance:
• Is a means to access an Oracle database
• Always opens one and only one database
• Consists of memory and process structures 
An Oracle instance consists of the System Global Area (SGA) memory structure and
the background processes used to manage a database. An instance is identified by
using methods specific to each operating system. The instance can open and use only
one database at a time. 
System Global Area
The SGA is also called the shared global area. It is used to store database information
that is shared by database processes. It contains data and control information for the
Oracle server and is allocated in the virtual memory of the computer where Oracle
The shared pool environment contains both fixed and variable structures. The fixed
structures remain relatively the same size, whereas the variable structures grow and
shrink based on user and program requirements. The actual sizing for the fixed and
variable structures is based on an initialization parameter and the work of an Oracle
internal algorithm .
The library cache size is based on the sizing defined for the shared pool. Memory is
allocated when a statement is parsed or a program unit is called. If the size of the
shared pool is too small, statements are continually reloaded into the library cache,
which affects performance. The library cache is managed by a least recently used
(LRU) algorithm .
Data Dictionary Cache
The data dictionary cache is also referred to as the dictionary cache or row cache.
Caching data dictionary information into memory improves response time .
Database Buffer Cache
When a query is processed, the Oracle server process looks in the database buffer
cache for any blocks it needs. If the block is not found in the database buffer cache,
the server process reads the block from the data file and places a copy in the database
buffer cache .
Redo Log Buffer Cache
The redo log buffer cache is a circular buffer that contains changes made to data file
blocks. This information is stored in redo entries. Redo entries contain the information
necessary to recreate the data prior to the change made by INSERT, UPDATE,
DELETE, CREATE, ALTER, or DROP operations .
The background process PMON cleans up after failed processes by:
• Rolling back the user’s current transaction
• Releasing all currently held table or row locks
• Freeing other resources currently reserved by the user
• Restarts dead dispatchers. 
An event called a checkpoint occurs when the Oracle background process DBWn
writes all the modified database buffers in the SGA, including both committed and
uncommitted data, to the data files.
Checkpoints are implemented for the following reasons:
• Checkpoints ensure that data blocks in memory that change frequently are written to
data files regularly.
• Therefore, checkpoints are useful because they can expedite instance recovery .
System Monitor (SMON)
• Instance recovery:
– Rolls forward changes in the redo logs
– Opens the database for user access
– Rolls back uncommitted transactions
• Coalesces free space ever 3 sec
• Deallocates temporary segments.
The server process records changes to rollback and data blocks in the buffer cache.
Database Writer (DBWn) writes the dirty buffers from the database buffer cache to
the data files. It ensures that a sufficient number of free buffers—buffers that can be
overwritten when server processes need to read in blocks from the data files—are
available in the database buffer cache. Database performance is improved because
server processes make changes only in the buffer cache.
LGWR performs sequential writes from the redo log buffer cache to the redo log file
under the following situations:
• When a transaction commits
• When the redo log buffer cache is one-third full
• When there is more than a megabyte of changes records in the redo log buffer cache
• Before DBWn writes modified blocks in the database buffer cache to the data files
• Every 3 seconds. 
The Archiver Process
All other background processes are optional, depending on the configuration of the
database; however, one of them, ARCn, is crucial to recovering a database after the
loss of a disk.
A database user who needs to request information from the database must first make a
connection with the Oracle server. The connection is requested using a database
interface tool, such as SQL*Plus, and beginning the user process. The user process
does not interact directly with the Oracle server. Rather it generates calls through the
user program interface (UPI), which creates a session and starts a server process.
Once a user has established a connection, a server process is started to handle the user
processes requests. A server process can be either a dedicated server process or a
shared server process. In a dedicated server environment, the server process handles
the request of a single user process. Once a user process disconnects, the server
process is terminated. In a shared server environment, the server process handles the
request of several user processes.
The server process communicates with the Oracle server using the Oracle Program
3.3: Existing System:
The Existing Online System is adaptive in nature owing to its ability to judge
a person’s skills related to answering certain questions which are objective in nature.
Descriptive questions don’t find a place in these exams due to lack of evaluation
system or manual evaluation required which involves loss of precious time & require
more manpower to accomplish tasks.
Fig 3.2: Existing MCQ Based Examination System 
• MCQ based no subjective evaluation.
• Report & feedback is general not specific.
• Lacks interactivity for a programming language.
• SQL analysis in real-time is absent.
3.4: Need for the New System
The System of descriptive examination System is need of the hour.
The existing examination system is susceptible to grading errors and delays.
The system is unable to capture all facets of an examination system to
comprehensively judge a student’s mental faculties.
The major problems thus identified are as follows:
1) Grading Errors:
Students generally complain of errors in evaluation. These errors are traced back
generally to over burdened faculty, with time constraints to evaluate a descriptive
1) Objective Evaluation only:
Descriptive Exams aim to evaluate students on higher plane than an objective
exam, they aim to give a student sense of freedom to express ideas or give out
answers not limited to a certain objectives.
The current system lack such an ability to meet these objectives, though
certain research has been carried out to meet these objectives by means of using
GUI based tools, but they aren’t match to a student’s natural ability & creativity.
Programming languages have been notorious in nature due to proliferation of
their development standards. Thus a descriptive system for them is warranted.
2) Need for a learning tool for DBMS SQL Concepts:
SQL has varied applications & DBMS practically is implemented around SQL.
Students find it difficult to learn & apply these concepts by use of current system
of MCQ’s which don’t give them prompt feedback, hindering their natural pace of
3.5: Purpose of System:
The purpose of on-line testing for SQL is to conduct an online test to check
effective skills of students registered for the testing areas of DBMS, SQL query
interpretation, SQL query writing/ formation.
The System shall use a dynamic algorithm to interpret a query &
suggest a query plan for it so as to indicate a detail execution summary which shall be
compared with a standard output to judge a student’s response.
Designing the web based application based on J2EE , following MVC (Model
View Controller ) pattern.
Design & creation of a Dummy database for validating the result set.
Provisioning of a MCQ based practice as well as main test exam for DBMS.
Query Analysis for provisioning of simple SQL DML statements
Provisioning for complex SQL DML Statements in Descriptive exam
Real Time Student behavioral & aptitude analysis for an adaptive DBMS
Introduction for Embedded SQL query functionalities
The Scope of the system shall involve following:
1) The System shall be highly versatile in order to evaluate a student as it shall
introduce subjective evaluation of SQL queries effectively.
2) The system shall allow privileged access to resources.
3) The system shall be secure to prevent any kind of proliferation
4) The system shall generate effective feed back according to user profiles.
Ex: reports generated for students shall differ from teachers, due to the nature of
their role & involvement at a different plane in a SQL course.
5) The system will provide effective management functions which shall enable system
administrators to carry out their roles of Accounting, backup, library management,
registration, profile activations effectively.
6) The system shall deal with simple SQL DML statements which shall be enhanced
further to involve advanced PL-SQL statements.
7) The system shall make learning process simple for students due to practice test
8) Faculty shall be benefited by reduction in workload, which will give them more
time to introduce new methods of instructions.
4.1 Product and Problem Statement:
The project intends to create a paperless examination system for SQL language with
ability to analyze subjective questions based on DML Queries.
4.1.1: Problem Statement:
The problem of Conducting a paperless SQL subjective examination.
Affects Students Appearing for exams. Faculties evaluating
exams & setting coursework.
Successful solution would be To develop a subjective algorithm implemented in J2EE
application to analyze DML SQL Queries.
Is provided by Provisioning of a Exam session with background
algorithm as part of SQL queries interpretation,
evaluation with certain standard responses on a limited
no. of DBMS implementations ex: oracle.
4.1.2: Product Positioning Statement:
For (End Users) Educational Institutes Interested in conducting Subjective
exams in DBMS Course
Compelling Reason Of
Absence of Subjective testing for SQL statements in real-
Product Is Web application on J2EE platform for SQL Subjective
Provided Benefits Algorithms for Subjective evaluation;
Dynamic grading & evaluation;
Feedback for performance improvement;
Secure Login & privileged operations on resources.
Unlike Any other online exam system due provision of subjective
Optimizes SQL learning by use of innovative algorithms
that provide effective feedbacks.
4.2 Product Overview:
4.2.1 Product perspective
The Web application uses the 4-tier application architecture to separate data,
business logic, system models, and client code interface. The system shall incorporate
state of the art web platform in form of J2EE that enables ease of maintainability &
leaving a huge scope for future capability expansion. The algorithm incorporated shall
lead to effective analysis satisfying user needs/requirements.
Fig 4.1: A sample 4-tier application perspective 
4.2.2 Summary of Capabilities
The system shall accompany a strong security mechanism to prevent illegal access to
system resources & privilege authorities restricted to certain user groups.
The system shall be open-ended to add capabilities at a future date.
Provisioning for profiling of users.
Real-time analysis, feedback, & Updation shall be made central theme.
Algorithms can be configured to accommodate complex SQL structures ex: PL-SQL
4.2.3 Assumptions & Dependencies
We assume that the users are conversant with computer fundamentals and basic
operations of a DBMS system & a web based application environment. Depending on
which feature of the module is to be utilized appropriate knowledge on part of the user
Initial user training shall be accommodated for certain modules & will be part of
4.2.4 Stakeholder and User Descriptions
The users involved with this system are specifically students of computer
science interested in taking a course in DBMS; Teacher/faculties actively involved in
designing, conducting DBMS courses & System administrators with experience to
handle system databases.
Educational institutes conducting professional courses in computer sciences &
allied subjects are the main stakeholders which would be the intended customers of
this software product.
4.2.5 User environment
• The system cannot be used where there is no internet connectivity.
• Can be used effectively only when the bandwidth is high.(256 KBPS
recommended as per TRAI Regulations)
• Cannot work if the cables are damaged due to natural calamities.
• Computer Systems must have a java-enabled web browser that meets
stringent requirements & is updatable. Ex: mozilla firefox, IE8,
Preferred system platform:
• The System can effectively function on any OS platform that supports
tomcat server/websphere application environment.
• System shall be implemented using latest J2EE based web frameworks
like Struts, Hibernate that have full support for application in an N-tier
4.3 Hardware Requirements:
The most common set of requirements defined by any operating system or software
application is the physical computer resources, also known as hardware, A hardware
requirements list is often accompanied by a hardware compatibility list (HCL),
especially in case of operating systems. An HCL lists tested, compatible, and
sometimes incompatible hardware devices for a particular operating system or
application. The following sub-sections discuss the various aspects of hardware
The computer systems running these applications shall have computer
• Quantum computer , Chemical computer
• Scalar processor , Vector processor
• Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) computers
• Register machine ,Stack machine
• Harvard architecture , von Neumann architecture
• Cellular architecture
4.3.2 Processing power:
The preferred requirements are:
X-86 based Intel / AMD processors with Clock at 2.4 GHz or more.
FSB of 133 MHz-333 MHz or more. Cache memory of 2 MB or more.
4.3.3 Memory & Secondary storage:
RAM of more than 512 MB is preferred owing to the complexity of
diverse OS platforms (32 bit & 64 bit) in use.
Secondary storage memory should be 5 GB or more for server side.
Client Side can have RAM of 512 sufficient to run a high-end browser.
4.4.1 OS Platform & Development Platform:
OS platform can be of user choice from wide ranges available from
Windows Series (XP/ Vista/ Windows 7). The development platform of
choice is Windows Xp/ Vista.
J2EE SDK shall be required in order to develop applications along with
Netbeans/ Eclipse IDE, configured with back end Deployment
Applications servers like Apache Tomcat 6.1 or above.
Oracle 9i/10G database server shall serve as back-end servers.
4.4.2 APIs and Drivers:
J2EE SDK shall incorporate all API’s required to develop new web
application along with IDE plugin’s to be incorporated with
Database type 1-4 JDBC drivers shall be required to provide access to
oracle back end server.
4.4.3 Web browser
Most web applications and software depending heavily on Internet
technologies make use of the default browser installed on system. Microsoft
Internet Explorer is a frequent choice of software running on Microsoft
Window. Mozilla firefox & chrome with suitable plugin’s to support Java
4.5 Feasibility Study:
4.5.1 What are the user’s demonstrable needs?
User’s needs a web-based online subjective examination system for SQL DML
course. The user wants a web-based system, which will reduce the bulk of paperwork,
provide ease of work, flexibility, fast record finding, modifying, adding, removing
and generating the reports. User would want use of efficient, fast algorithm for
analysis of subjective SQL DML statements as part of a web application.
The backend shall be easy to access, secure & maintainable.
4.5.2 How can the problem be redefined?
We proposed our perception of the system, in accordance with the problems of
existing system by making a full layout of the system on paper. We tallied the
problems and needs by existing system and requirements. We were further updating
in the layout in the basis of redefined the problems. In feasibility study phase we had
undergone through various steps, which are described as under:
How feasible is the system proposed? This was analyzed by comparing the following
factors with both the existing system and proposed system.
220.127.116.11 Cost Feasibility:
The cost required in the proposed system is comparatively less to the existing system.
The ROI(return on investment) in long term is high, sustainable for the client,
The cost is reduced due to use of open source J2EE platform which provides inbuilt
API’s. The application servers used here are available for free downloads with
The hardware used are PC computers with central connectivity by use of CAT5/ CAT
6 cables to another PC configured as a server which shall prove to be effective,
simple, low cost solution.
18.104.22.168 Effort Feasibility
Compared to the existing system the proposed system will provide a better working
environment in which their will be ease of work and the effort required will be
comparatively less than the existing system.
The system development for developers will be a comprehensive exercise
encompassing development & cross –stream survey for better definition of
requirements & subsequent follow up using the tools at their disposals.
22.214.171.124 Time Feasibility
Project is feasible on development front dispersed with activities over a period of one
The estimated time for design, development, testing, deployment is as follows:
1) Requirements gathering: 4-6 weeks.
2) Analysis of requirements: 2-4 weeks
3) Design formulation (Design Prototyping): 3-4 weeks
4) Development (Coding. Recoding Modules): 3-4 weeks
5) Testing (Code, user acceptance): 2-3 weeks.
6) Deployment(user -side): 1-2 weeks
Note: all figures are approximate.
The array of following activities shall be enhanced by use of the new proposed
a) Descriptive evaluation;
b) Exam configuration;
c) Result Distribution;
d) Record Keeping;
e) Certificate issual;
f) Feedback to improve course-work will be comparatively very less than in the
existing system. Record finding and updating will take less time than the existing
126.96.36.199 Labour Feasibility
In the existing system the number of staff required for completing the work is more
while the new system will require quite less number of staff as descriptive evaluation
has been automated.
The group of developers required to achieve the project mandatory requirements shall
be 3-4 developers (preferably BE Computer) with domain knowledge of online exam
system, DBMS concepts, web application development environment & tools.
188.8.131.52 Security Feasibility
Descriptive examination will have a secure, privileged access mechanism, which shall
ensure transparency of conducting exams;
Meanwhile it shall avoid unauthorized access to the confidential/restricted web
resources like exam papers.
5.1: Functions and Authorization:
Users of the SQL paperless examination system are classified into three categories,
each granted with a different level of authorization. Namely, we have system
administrator, teacher, and student. System administrator is in charge of management
of the system infrastructure. Normally the role is assigned to the responsible party of
the course. This role permits access to the following functions:
a) Account management: add, edit, and delete teacher and student accounts as well
as setting permission level of various accounts in lot quantity.
b) Question library management: set and maintain the global library of practice
questions and the lib of examination questions.
c) Test management: set up the test by customizing the time, format, types of
questions of the test. Also includes the export and analysis of scores after a test.
d) System Maintenance: system functions such as regular data backup and data
Authorization associated with the teacher account is related to teaching and
management of student information. Specifically, the role is granted following
a) Customize and announce course materials: a teacher may post course materials
onto the systems for students’ reference, including presentation slides, experiment
notes, introduction of the course, syllabus, and so on.
b) Question lib management: a teacher can post and maintain certain portion of the
practice questions for students in his class to use; he may also set the availability of
the global lib of practice questions. However, teacher users cannot browse or edit the
lib of test questions.
c) Student management: maintain student information, including add, edit, and
delete information of students in one’s class.
d) Grade management: manage test scores, including edit, delete, export, etc.
Student accounts have access to download materials, do practice, and tests.
The functions below are permitted:
a) Material download: browse and download course materials.
b) Practice: solve practice questions and submit answers within the time frame pre-
designated by the teacher.
c) Test: solve test questions and submit answers within the time frame pre-designated
by the teacher.
With the description of functions and authorization, we present the system function
module in Figure 1:
Fig: 5.1 System Function Module
5.2: UML Diagrams for Proposed System:
Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standardized general-purpose
modeling language in the field of software engineering. UML is the best option to
design & model the project facets from different point of view & perspectives
(developer, end users).
5.2.1: Use-Case Diagram:
Fig 5.2: Use-Case Diagram- Online Examination System
The main purpose of a use case diagram is to show what system functions are
performed for which actor. Roles of the actors in the system can be depicted.
Use-Cases: (Fig 5.2)
a) Admin Roles & functions
b) Teacher Role & functions
c) Students Roles & functions
Actors Involved (Fig 5.2)
1) System Administrator:
The Administrator module shows various functions which are independent in
nature like Account management, Question library management, test
management, System management.
The Teacher module shows various functions which are independent in nature
like Grade management, Question library management, test management , Course
management & student management.
3) Student :
The Student module shows various functions which are independent in nature like
material download, practice & Appear for Test management.
5.2.2 Class Diagram
Class Diagram models the resources used to build and operate the system.
Resources represent people, materials, information and behaviors.
Classes in this diagram are Administrator, Student, Teacher, Online SQL System
fig 5.3: Class Diagram
5.2.3: Activity Diagram:
1. Start the system
2. Enter the ID
3. If ID is wrong, renter the ID
4. If ID is correct, login is successful
5. If an administrator then
a. Set up configuration of the system
b. Takes backup of the examination questionnaire, database and student
c. Looks after the system in case of failures or crashes
6. If a student then
a. Start the exam
b. If submit button is clicked or it’s a timeout then paper is submitted to the
c. Result is displayed
7. If a teacher then
a. Set the exam
b. Get the feedback
c. Analyze the result
8. Exit from the system
5.2.4 Sequence Diagram
In our project three type of login is present
1) Login for student.
2) Login for teacher.
3) Login for Administrator.
So we are drawing diagram for all three.
1) Login for student.
Student login consists of following steps for log in
A) Logon successfully
i. system Id and user ID matched
ii. system Id and user ID not matched
B) Start exam
C) Submit paper or timeout auto submit paper
D) Show result with analysis
2) Login for teacher.
A) Log on successfully
i. system Id and user ID matched
ii. system Id and user ID not matched
B) Set exam
C) Get feedback
D) Analyze result
4) Login for Administrator.
A) Log on successfully
i.system Id and user ID matched
ii. System Id and user ID not matched
B) Register student
C) Setup exam
D) Take backup of data.
E) Maintain the system in good condition.
FUTURE SCOPE, APPLICATION, CONCLUSION
6.1 Future Scope:
The future of examination is online. This trend has been amply demonstrated by the
large number of institutions that conduct, accept scores to grade students either to
award degrees or to accept them as potential students.
The traditional online exam system has been MCQ based but further research
will enhance their potential to evaluate subjective examinations.
Some of the possibilities are as follows:
1) Automatic Grading System for Essay Type Exams ex: TOEFL.
2) Prompt, standards based evaluation accepted worldwide by a consortium of
3) Course Specific evaluation that aims to test skills in certain special areas of
interest like programming languages, research aptitude.
4) Reduction of use of stationary, leading to a truly paperless education system at
5) Improvement in educational standards due to introduction of prompt, reliable
feedback mechanism helping students to excel in academics, meanwhile
helping faculties to improve course content and delivery.
Creation of a Paperless Examination Application for Multiple clients
Provision for Descriptive as well as objective evaluation of Examinee
Research on parser techniques
Database Optimization using offline mode
Enhancement of educational course delivery and design
The SQL Paperless Examination shall effectively improve the automation level of
examination for courses especially related to DBMS SQL.
The project shall improve student performance by introduction of prompt feedback
mechanism. The teachers shall also be benefited by analysis provided by the system,
which will reduce their workload effectively, helping them to concentrate more on
course work improvement and course delivery.
Fair grading due to automation shall improve student confidence in examination
systems, one of the major goals which all premier universities intend to achieve.
The system shall act as a stepping stone for further improvement in DBMS systems
due to allied research in storage techniques and data retrieval systems.
 “Design of Paperless Examination System for Principles of Database Systems”,
Gaoyan Zhang1, Haifeng Ke School of Computer & Computing Science, Zhejiang
University City College Hangzhou 310015, P.R. China.
 “SQL Paperless Examination System Design” Gaoyan Zhang1, Haifeng Ke
School of Computer & Computing Science, Zhejiang University City College
Hangzhou 310015, P.R. China
 ”Oracle9i DBA Fundamentals I”,Student Volume I, Oracle Corporation,
 ”Design of an Automated Essay Grading (AEG) System in Indian Context”,
At 2010 International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 1 – No. 11
Siddhartha Ghosh, Associate Professor, CSE, GNITS
Dr. Sameen S Fatima Professor, CSE, Osmania University Hyderabad, India
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