Under the guidance ofProf.Priya.B.Bagewadi Submitted by Mrudula Swamy
WHAT IS BYPASS SURGERY??? Heart bypass surgery or Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery(CABG) is performed to improve the circulation of blood to the heart muscles in people with severe coronary artery diseases. One or more coronary arteries can be bypassed in an operation.
BEFORE THE PROCEDURE IV line Oral or IV sedative General anesthesia Breathing tube Catheter placed in bladder
DURING THE PROCEDURE Two blood vessels are typically used for graft: 1.Internal Thoracic Artery(ITA) and 2.Saphenous vein
AFTER THE PROCEDURE Patient may experience side effects such as: Loss of appetite, constipation. Swelling in the area from which the segment of blood vessel was removed. Fatigue, mood swings, feelings of depression, difficulty in sleeping. Muscle pain or tightness in the shoulders and upper back.
WHAT ARE NANOROBOTS A nanobot is a microscopic robot built with nanotechnology. Performs tasks at nanoscale level. The size of nanorobot is 10-9. The prefix nano means billionth.
PROPERTIES OF NANOBOT USEDON BYPASS SURGERY The nanorobots structure will have two spaces, interior and exterior. The exterior will be diamonded. An electric motor is attached to this nanorobot for its propagation inside the circulatory system in the blood vessels. The microprocessor, artery thermometer, camera, rotating needle are also incorporated in this nanomachine, which perform the vital role of the nanorobot. The microprocessor controls the overall operation of this nanorobot. The radioactive material is impregnated and is made as a part of the exterior surface, which helps us to trace the nanorobot at any period of time. The magnetic switch is also provided to switch on and off the nanorobot at any point of time.
INJECTING A NANOROBOT IN TO THEBODY AND THE SOURCE OF MOVING:•Nanorobot gets access into the body through a large diameter artery i.e. thefemoral artery in leg.•A small amount of radioactive substance is•impregnated on nanorobot.•to get access to the site of operation of the nanorobot, it must have active propeller.•An electric motor is used. This electric motor will have a shrouded blade design so as to avoid damage to the surrounding tissues.•An internal sensor is used to find out the exact location of the plaque.
TREATMENT OF PLAQUE AND MEANSOF REMOVAL OF NANOROBOT: Activation of rotating needle. The diamond chipped burr grinds the plaque into micro particles. Cutting procedure is monitored using the camera. Nanorobot starts the operation when the bar magnet is moved over it. The removal of nanorobot is made possible by guiding the Nanorobot to anchor a blood vessel that is easily accessible from outside, and perform a small surgical operation is performed to remove it. The area where the temperature exceeds than the maximum limit set in the nanorobot, will be operated on by the Nanorobot i.e. that part will be cut by the rotator needle attached to the nanorobot.
WHY NANOROBOTS???? ADVANTAGES Elimination of disease. Nanorobot might function at the atomic and molecular level to build devices, machines or circuits known as molecular manufacturing. Nanorobots might also produce copies of themselves to replace worn-out units, a process called self-replication. The major advantage of nanorobots is thought to be their durability, in theory, they can remain operational for years, decades or centuries.
DISADVANTAGES The nanorobot should be very accurate otherwise harmful events may occur. The initial design cost is very high. The design of this robot is very complicated Hard to design.
CONCLUSION With the application to healthcare, nanotechnology is indeed quite the exciting and revolutionary technique in the pursuit of quality healthcare. Nanomedicine endeavors to improve human health utilizing molecular tools and nano particles. The technology and the applicability of it to the human body is still at preliminary stages .
REFERENCES Replacement Of Heart Bypass Surgery By Nanorobots, International Journal Of Advanced Research And technology, www.ijart.org/2012/IJART080.pdf ,Shinob M.C, Department of ECE,Roever Engineering College,Perambalur Jidhin G, Department of ECE,Roever Engineering College,Perambalur www.frost.com,www.frost.com/sublib/display-market-insightop.do?id=130393722 Possibilitieswithnanorobotics,3407713mcfilmer.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/report- assignment-1.pdf 123seminarsonly,123seminarsonly.com/Seminar-Reports/039/66242411-Nano-Robots.pdf Discoveryhealth,health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/surgeriesprocedures/question120 wiseGEEK, www.wisegeek.com/what-are-nanorobots.htm John Hopkins medicine,www.hopkinsmedicine.org/heart_vascular_institute/clinical_services/specialty_a reas/coronary_artery_surgery.html