Chapter 2   Social Sciences Andthe Scientific Method
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  • 1. Chapter 2 Social Sciences and the Scientific Method
  • 2. Learning Objectives
    • Define science
    • Explain the scientific method
    • Explain how social scientists develop and test hypotheses
    • Explain the classic research design
    • Describe some of the problems faced by researching in implementing the scientific method
    • Describe the methods of social science research, including survey research, field research and using secondary source data
  • 3. Science and the Scientific Method
    • Science
      • an organized body of knowledge or a discipline that employs the scientific method
    • Scientific method
      • a method of explanation that develops and tests theories about how observable facts or events are related
    • Explaining Relationships
      • The goal of the scientific method is explanation.
      • Hypothesis is a tentative statement about a relationship between observable facts or events
      • Significant means that it is not likely to have occurred by chance
  • 4. Science and the Scientific Method cont.
    • Developing and testing hypotheses
      • The scientific method seeks to develop statements about how events or behaviors might be related and then determines the validity of these statements by careful, systematic, and logical tests
      • Correlation is a significant statistical relationship but does not equal causation
      • Inference is a causal statement based on data showing a significant relationship
    • Dealing with Observable Phenomena
      • The scientific method deals only with observable—empirical—facts and events, e.g. what is
      • Normative referring to values or norms, e.g. what should be
  • 5. Science and the Scientific Method cont.
    • Developing Theory
      • The scientific method strives to develop a systematic body of theory
      • Theories are explanations of facts or events
    • Maintaining a Scientific Attitude
      • More than anything else, the scientific method is an attitude of doubt or skepticism
      • Scientific attitude is the doubt or skepticism about theories until they have been scientifically tested
  • 6. WHAT IS A “FACT”?
    • Universal statement
      • a statement that applies to every circumstance
    • Probabilistic statement
      • a statement that applies to some proportion of circumstances
  • 7. The Classic Scientific Research Design
    • Scientific research design
      • involves the comparison of specific changes in two or more carefully selected groups
      • An experiment is a scientific test controlled by the researcher to observe effects of a specific program or treatment
      • An experimental group is the group that will participate in the program or undergo the treatment under study
      • A control group is a group, identical to the experimental group, that does not undergo treatment and is used for comparison
      • A null hypothesis a statement that the program or treatment has no effect
  • 8. Gathering Data: Survey Research
    • Survey Research
      • Sample is a group of people chosen to represent the opinions of a larger group
      • Universe is the whole group about which information is desired
      • Random sample is a sample in which each person in the universe has an equal chance of being selected for interviewing
      • Sampling error is the range of responses in which a 95-percent chance exists that the sample reflects the universe
    • Problems in Survey Research
      • survey research problems
        • unformed opinions
        • weakly held opinions
        • changing opinions
  • 9. Gathering Data: Survey Research cont.
    • Assessing Public Opinion
      • Public opinion is the aggregate of opinions of individuals on topics in survey research
      • Salient issues are issues about which most people have formed strong and stable opinions
      • Push polls are polls constructed to produce results favorable to political candidates or the side of an argument
      • Halo effect the tendency of respondents to give “good citizen” responses to pollsters
    • Field Research
      • directly observing social behavior
      • participant-observation researchers both observe and participate in the behavior being studied
      • Ethnography is a systematic description of a society’s customary behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes
      • A case study is an in-depth investigation of a particular event in order to understand it as fully as possible
  • 10. Gathering Data: Survey Research cont.
    • Secondary Source Data
      • data used by social scientists that have been collected by other organizations, government agencies, or researchers
      • Statistical Abstract of the United States