On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
By continuing to use LinkedIn’s SlideShare service, you agree to the revised terms, so please take a few minutes to review them.
What do you remember?
Make sure you can answer the review questions on
page 4 and 5!
Bonds are formed when electrons are shared or
exchanged between atoms.
1. intermolecular bonds
2. intramolecular bonds
bonds found between molecules
bonds found between atoms WITHIN a molecule
The strength of these bond are relatively weak.
1. van der Waals interactions
attraction between nearby non-polar molecules
attraction of + and - ends of polar molecules
2. hydrogen bonding (H-bonding)
strongest type of polar molecule interactions
1. covalent bonds
sharing electrons between atoms; sharing may be
equal or unequal
2. ionic bonds
electrostatic attraction between ions upon electron
Why is it so important?
The Importance of Water
Many of the properties of water are due to its polarity
H-bonding allows water molecules to cling to each
other and to other molecules.
2. High Heat Capacity
Water is capable of absorbing a lot of heat without
increasing in temperature.
Heat absorption of bodies of water during the summer
keeps the air around it cooler. In the winter, the heat
released warms the surrounding air.
3. High Heat of Vaporization
Water requires a lot of
heat to evaporate from
liquid to gas states.
4. Low Density Solid
Water is the only type of matter which becomes less
dense when a solid.
5. Very Good Solvent
Many other molecules are able to dissolve in water.
Organic matter may be hydrophilic or hydrophobic.
6. Determines pH
Organisms are very sensitive to pH.
H2O <===> H+ + OH-
pH = -log[H+]
Is water an acid or a base?
H2O + H2O H3O+ + OH-
Brønsted-Lowry Acids & Bases
compounds that will donate a proton in solution
results in a negative charge
compounds that will receive a proton in solution
results in a positive charge
Do you remember your functional groups?
All organic molecules contain the carbon atom. Also
mainly contain hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
This is important because it:
1. may participate in four covalent bonds.
2. can form long chains.
3. can form ring structures.
-Carbon can make 4 bonds
-The 4 bonds can be a combination of single, double,
and triple bonds
Drawing organic molecules
3 types of diagrams
Drawing organic molecules
Every end or point on a line diagram
represents a carbon atom. Hydrogen
atoms are not shown.
How an organic molecule will react is dependent on its
Functional groups are like the gadgets on a Swiss Army
They determine the functions of the knife, similar to how
functional groups determine the function of a molecule.