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- 1. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL
- 2. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODELElectrons occupy specific energy levels/shells in an atom.The number of electrons in each level is governed by the formula 2n2
- 3. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODELErwin Schrödinger Schrödinger proposed that the atom was arranged as "layers within layers" in terms of the electron shells.
- 4. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Schrödinger also proposed that an electron behaves in a wave-like manner rather than just as particles. Thus electrons are both particles and waves at the same time. Since electrons are waves, they do not remain localized in a 2-D orbit.
- 5. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Instead of being organized in 2-D orbits, electrons are actually found in 3-D orbitals. Each orbital defines an area where the probability of finding an electron is high. These orbitals are known as electron “clouds”.
- 6. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Orbits Vs. Orbitals 2-D path 3-D path Fixed distance from Variable distance from nucleus nucleus Circular or elliptical No path; varied shape of path region 2n2 electrons per orbit 2 electrons per orbital
- 7. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Each orbital (containing 2 electrons) is further classified under different categorizations based on their shapespdf
- 8. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Orbitals and Orbital Shapes Each arrows Fits 2 electrons subshell Increasing energy represents an orbital electronp Fits 6 electrons px py pzd Fits 10 electrons dv dw dx dy dzf Fits 14 electrons dt du dv dw dx dy dz Pauli exclusion principle: No two electrons in an orbital have the same direction
- 9. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL RECALL: Schrödinger proposed that each energy level/shell had a respective number of subshells. s s, p s, p, d What do you think these subshells are?
- 10. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Drawing an electron energy-level diagramExample: OxygenHow many electrons does oxygen have? 8 2p 2s Hund’s rule: No two electrons can be put into the same orbital until one 1s electron has been put into each of the equal-energy orbitals O aufbau principle: An energy sublevel must be filled before moving to the next higher sublevel
- 11. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Drawing an electron energy-level diagramExample: OxygenHow many electrons does oxygen have? 8 2p 2s 1s O aufbau principle: An energy sublevel must be filled before moving to the next higher sublevel
- 12. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Drawing an electron energy-level diagram Compare with its Bohr-Example: Oxygen Rutherford diagram: 2p 2s P=8 1s N=8 O Notice how the pairing of electrons in the Bohr-Rutherford diagram matches the energy level diagram
- 13. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Drawing an electron energy-level diagramExample: Iron How many electrons does iron have? 26 3d 3p 3s 2p 2s Although the 3rd energy level 1s has 3 subshells, the “electron filling” order is not as such Fe
- 14. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Each energy level is supposed to begin with one s orbital, and then three p orbitals, and so forth. There is often a bit of overlap. In this case, the 4s orbital comes before the 3d orbitals.
- 15. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODELaufbau diagram:Start at the top andadd electrons in theorder shown by thediagonal arrows.
- 16. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Drawing an electron energy-level diagramExample: Iron How many electrons does iron have? 26 3d 4s 3p 3s 2p 2s 1s Fe
- 17. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL So why does bromine still have 7 valence electronsdespite how the 3rd energy level can hold 18 electrons? 4p The last energy 3d level still has 7 electrons 4s 3p 3s 2p 2s 1s Br
- 18. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Drawing an electron energy-level diagramExample: sulfur vs sulfide ion This explains why Observe how there sulfur gains 2 are two unpaired electrons in ionic electrons in sulfur form 3p 3p 3s 3s 2p 2p 2s 2s This is despite 1s the fact that 1s sulfur has 5 S S2- unfilled d orbitals
- 19. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Drawing an electron energy-level diagramExample: zinc vs zinc ion3d 3d4s 4s3p 3p3s 3s The electrons2p 2p removed might2s 2s not be from the highest-energy1s 1s orbitals. This is based on Zn Zn2+ experimental evidence.
- 20. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODELWhy is an electron energy-level diagram drawn as such?The greaterthe orbitalnumber, thegreater theenergy oftheelectrons The nucleus is located at the bottom of the diagram
- 21. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Writing Electron ConfigurationsElectron configurations condense the information fromelectron energy-level diagrams Electron energy level diagram Electron configuration O: 1s2 2s2 2p4 2p 2s Energy level # 1s O 2s 2 # of electrons orbital in orbitals
- 22. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Writing Electron ConfigurationsElectron configurations: Cl: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 Sn: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p2 S2-: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 Fe: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d6
- 23. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Writing Electron ConfigurationsShorthand form of Electron configurations: Same configuration as Neon Cl: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 Cl: [Ne] 3s2 3p5 Same configuration as krypton Sn: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p2 Sn: [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p2 In the shorthand version, the “core electrons” of an atom are represented by the preceding noble gas
- 24. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Writing Electron ConfigurationsIdentify the element that has the following electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p4 1s 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p It is the 4th 6s 5d 6p element from 7s 6d the left here 4f 5f It is polonium (Po)
- 25. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL Electrons cannot exist between orbitals? Electronscannot exist here or here… 2p 2s 1s O or here… Why?
- 26. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODELSince electrons are like waves around the nucleus, they cannot have wavelengths that result in destructive interference (which can collapse the wave). mismatch As a result, the wavelengths must be multiples ofwhole numbers (n = 1, 2, 3, 4, …), which explains why there are areas where electrons cannot exist.
- 27. SCHRÖDINGER’S ATOMIC MODEL This causes electrons to be confined to certain probabilities around the nucleus.

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