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  • 1. pp 382 - 383
  • 2. Kary Mullis Developed the PCR process in 1986 Nobel Laureate, 1993
  • 3. Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR – a synthetic method (no living cells) to produce millions of copies of DNA  use enzymes in a tube - in vitro The more DNA available, the easier it is to work with. Minimum requirements for DNA polymerase: 1. 2. 3. template strand primers dNTPs
  • 4. Three Steps for each PCR Cycle 1. DNA strand denaturation (95°C) separate double stranded DNA  each strand becomes template strand  1. Primer annealing  1. bind short DNA pieces to template strands DNA strand synthesis  (50°C - 65°C) produce new DNA strands (72°C)
  • 5. Problem Where do you find enzymes that don’t break down at 95°C? Thermus aquaticus bacterium live in hot springs and their enzymes are designed to withstand extreme temperatures. Isolated Taq polymerase from these bacteria.
  • 6. PCR After 30 cycles, 230 (more than a billion) copies of DNA can be produced. 30 cycles of PCR can take anywhere from 1 – 2 hours to complete.
  • 7. PCR
  • 8. PCR Applications Genetic Screening Early detection for certain diseases. Forensic Analysis Small amounts of DNA collected to identify individuals.
  • 9. PCR Animation

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