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12 types of chemical reactions

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12 types of chemical reactions 12 types of chemical reactions Presentation Transcript

  • Types of Chemical Reactions
  • Synthesis ReactionA + B A B A + B  AB
  • Synthesis ReactionA + B A B A reaction where two reactants combine to make a larger, more complex product
  • Synthesis ReactionHCl(g) + NH3(g)  NH4Cl(s)
  • Decomposition ReactionA B A + B AB  A + B
  • Decomposition ReactionA B A + B A reaction where a more complex molecule breaks down to form two or more simpler products
  • Decomposition Reaction2NH4NO3(s)  4H2O(g) + 2N2(g) + O2(g) + energyTimothy McVeigh bombing, 1995 Regular building demolition with ammonium nitrate explosives
  • Decomposition Reaction2KClO3(s) + energy  2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)
  • Single Displacement ReactionA + B C A C + B A + BC  AC + B
  • Single Displacement ReactionA + B C A C + B A reaction where an elementdisplaces another element in a compound, producing a newcompound and a new element
  • Single Displacement ReactionHg(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)  Hg(s) + 2AgNO3(aq)
  • Single Displacement Reaction 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l)  2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
  • Single Displacement ReactionHg(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)  Hg(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) Will this reaction occur? H2(g) + ZnCl2(aq)  2HCl(aq) + Zn(s) What about this reaction? The second reaction does not occur. How will you know if a single displacement reaction will occur or not?
  • Single Displacement Reaction The activity series(also on page130, Table 4.2)The “Who’s Hotand Who’s Not Analogy”
  • Single Displacement Reaction MgSO4 + Zn  ?Will this reaction occur? This reaction will not occur
  • Single Displacement Reaction Involving halogens… I2(aq) + CaBr2(aq)  ?Will this reaction occur?This reaction will not occur REACTIVENESS The position ofhalogens in the periodic table tells you how reactive they are
  • Single Displacement Reaction Involving halogens… Cl2(g) + KBr(aq)  ? Will this reaction occur? REACTIVENESSThis reaction will occurCl2(g) + 2KBr(aq)  2KCl(aq) + Br2(l)
  • Double Displacement ReactionA D + B C A C + B D AD + BC  AC + BD
  • Double Displacement ReactionA D + B C A C + B D A reaction where elements in different compounds exchange places, producing two new compounds
  • Double Displacement ReactionPb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq)  PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)
  • Double Displacement Reaction 3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq)  Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl(aq) Will this reaction occur?A reaction will occur only if the following will be produced1)Gas2)Solid precipitate3)Water Solubility table
  • Double Displacement Reaction3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq)  Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl(aq) Will this reaction occur? YES
  • Double Displacement ReactionHow will you know if the product is a gas?CO2 is a gas, but not every gas is that simple to recognizeIf one of the products is H2CO3(aq) or NH4OH(aq), then you will get a gas! H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO2(g) NH4OH(aq)  NH3(g) + H2O(l)
  • Double Displacement ReactionFor example: Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + H2CO3(aq) H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO2(g) The equation may be re-written as… Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
  • Double Displacement ReactionNeutralization reaction: Special type ofdouble displacement reaction HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)  H2O(l) + NaCl(aq) Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide  water + salt (sodium chloride)Corrosive + corrosive  non-corrosive + non-corrosive
  • Double Displacement ReactionNeutralization Reaction Example: Antacids neutralize stomach acid 2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(aq)  CaCl2(aq) + H2CO3(aq) H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO2(g)
  • Combustion Reaction H 2Ofuel + O2 + CO2 A reaction of a fuel with oxygen, producing energy in the form of heat and/or light
  • Combustion Reaction H2Ofuel + O2 + CO2
  • Combustion Reaction Element + O2  “oxide” + energy2Mg(s) + O2(g)  2MgO(s) + energy P4(s) + 5O2(g)  P4O10(g) + energy
  • Combustion Reaction When burning a fuel, there are two types of combustion to consider: 1st Type: COMPLETE COMBUSTIONHydrocarbon + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + energy Ex. CH4(g) + 2O2(g)  CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) + energy
  • Combustion Reaction 2nd Type: INCOMPLETE COMBUSTIONHydrocarbon + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + carbon monoxide + carbon + energyEx. C4H10(g) + 5O2(g)  2CO2(g) + 5H2O(g) + CO(g) + C(s) + energy POISONOUS!!! BLACK!!!
  • Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction K + Cl2  ?1) Are the reactants in their pure elemental form (i.e. O 2, Mg, Cl2)?If yes, then this reaction is a SYNTHESIS REACTIONSo there should only be ONE product, and it should containboth reactants 2K + Cl2  2KCl
  • Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction H 2O  ?2) Is there only ONE reactant?If yes, then this reaction is a DECOMPOSITION REACTIONSo there should be two products, each being a separate element(i.e. Na, Ca, O2, I2, Br2) although that is not always the case 2H2O  2H2 + O2
  • Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction H 2 O2  ?2) Is there only ONE reactant?If yes, then this reaction is a DECOMPOSITION REACTIONSo there should be two products, each being a separate element(i.e. Na, Ca, O2, I2, Br2) although that is not always the case 2H2O2  2H2O + O2
  • Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction Zn + SnCl2  ?3) If there are 2 reactants, is one of them a pure metal on its own?If yes, then this reaction is a SINGLE DISPLACEMENT REACTIONSo the metal that is on its own must take the place of the othermetal that is in the larger compound Zn + SnCl2  ZnCl2 + Sn
  • Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction NaCl + AgNO3  ?4) Are both of the reactants compounds?If yes, then this reaction is a DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT REACTIONSo the two metals must switch places with one another, formingtwo new compoundsNaCl + AgNO3  NaNO3 + AgCl
  • Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction C8H18 + O2  ? 5) Is one of the reactants oxygen gas? If yes, then this reaction is a COMBUSTION REACTION (as well as a SYNTHESIS REACTION) So the products must be an oxide and energy. If one of the reactants is a hydrocarbon, then CO2 + H2O are the products.2C8H18 + 25O2  16CO2 + 18H2O + energy