Types of Chemical Reactions
Synthesis ReactionA + B            A B    A + B  AB
Synthesis ReactionA + B             A B  A reaction where two  reactants combine to   make a larger, more    complex product
Synthesis ReactionHCl(g) + NH3(g)  NH4Cl(s)
Decomposition ReactionA B            A + B      AB  A + B
Decomposition ReactionA B             A + B  A reaction where a more complex molecule breaks down to form two or more     ...
Decomposition Reaction2NH4NO3(s)  4H2O(g) + 2N2(g) + O2(g) + energyTimothy McVeigh bombing, 1995                         ...
Decomposition Reaction2KClO3(s) + energy  2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)
Single Displacement ReactionA    + B C          A C    + B        A + BC  AC + B
Single Displacement ReactionA    + B C          A C    + B A reaction where an elementdisplaces another element in a compo...
Single Displacement ReactionHg(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)  Hg(s) + 2AgNO3(aq)
Single Displacement Reaction  2Na(s) + 2H2O(l)  2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
Single Displacement ReactionHg(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)  Hg(s) + 2AgNO3(aq)       Will this reaction occur?   H2(g) + ZnCl2(aq)...
Single Displacement Reaction The activity   series(also on page130, Table 4.2)The “Who’s Hotand Who’s Not   Analogy”
Single Displacement Reaction          MgSO4 + Zn  ?Will this reaction occur?     This reaction will        not occur
Single Displacement Reaction    Involving halogens…       I2(aq) + CaBr2(aq)  ?Will this reaction occur?This reaction wil...
Single Displacement Reaction       Involving halogens…           Cl2(g) + KBr(aq)  ?   Will this reaction occur?         ...
Double Displacement ReactionA D + B C        A C + B D    AD + BC  AC + BD
Double Displacement ReactionA D + B C         A C + B D  A reaction where elements in different compounds exchange   place...
Double Displacement ReactionPb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq)  PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)
Double Displacement Reaction 3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq)  Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl(aq)            Will this reaction occur?A rea...
Double Displacement Reaction3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq)  Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl(aq)      Will this reaction occur? YES
Double Displacement ReactionHow will you know if the product is a gas?CO2 is a gas, but not every gas is that simple to re...
Double Displacement ReactionFor example:   Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + H2CO3(aq)           H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO...
Double Displacement ReactionNeutralization reaction: Special type ofdouble displacement reaction         HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq...
Double Displacement ReactionNeutralization Reaction Example: Antacids neutralize                    stomach acid   2HCl(aq...
Combustion Reaction                          H 2Ofuel + O2                + CO2 A reaction of a fuel with oxygen, producin...
Combustion Reaction              H2Ofuel + O2    + CO2
Combustion Reaction Element + O2  “oxide” + energy2Mg(s) + O2(g)  2MgO(s) + energy   P4(s) + 5O2(g)  P4O10(g) + energy
Combustion Reaction        When burning a fuel, there are two types of                combustion to consider:          1st...
Combustion Reaction              2nd Type: INCOMPLETE COMBUSTIONHydrocarbon + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + carbon mon...
Predicting the Products for a         Chemical Reaction                      K + Cl2  ?1) Are the reactants in their pure...
Predicting the Products for a        Chemical Reaction                        H 2O  ?2) Is there only ONE reactant?If yes...
Predicting the Products for a        Chemical Reaction                       H 2 O2  ?2) Is there only ONE reactant?If ye...
Predicting the Products for a         Chemical Reaction                 Zn + SnCl2  ?3) If there are 2 reactants, is one ...
Predicting the Products for a        Chemical Reaction            NaCl + AgNO3  ?4) Are both of the reactants compounds?I...
Predicting the Products for a         Chemical Reaction                  C8H18 + O2  ? 5) Is one of the reactants oxygen ...
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Transcript of "12 types of chemical reactions"

  1. 1. Types of Chemical Reactions
  2. 2. Synthesis ReactionA + B A B A + B  AB
  3. 3. Synthesis ReactionA + B A B A reaction where two reactants combine to make a larger, more complex product
  4. 4. Synthesis ReactionHCl(g) + NH3(g)  NH4Cl(s)
  5. 5. Decomposition ReactionA B A + B AB  A + B
  6. 6. Decomposition ReactionA B A + B A reaction where a more complex molecule breaks down to form two or more simpler products
  7. 7. Decomposition Reaction2NH4NO3(s)  4H2O(g) + 2N2(g) + O2(g) + energyTimothy McVeigh bombing, 1995 Regular building demolition with ammonium nitrate explosives
  8. 8. Decomposition Reaction2KClO3(s) + energy  2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)
  9. 9. Single Displacement ReactionA + B C A C + B A + BC  AC + B
  10. 10. Single Displacement ReactionA + B C A C + B A reaction where an elementdisplaces another element in a compound, producing a newcompound and a new element
  11. 11. Single Displacement ReactionHg(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)  Hg(s) + 2AgNO3(aq)
  12. 12. Single Displacement Reaction 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l)  2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
  13. 13. Single Displacement ReactionHg(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)  Hg(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) Will this reaction occur? H2(g) + ZnCl2(aq)  2HCl(aq) + Zn(s) What about this reaction? The second reaction does not occur. How will you know if a single displacement reaction will occur or not?
  14. 14. Single Displacement Reaction The activity series(also on page130, Table 4.2)The “Who’s Hotand Who’s Not Analogy”
  15. 15. Single Displacement Reaction MgSO4 + Zn  ?Will this reaction occur? This reaction will not occur
  16. 16. Single Displacement Reaction Involving halogens… I2(aq) + CaBr2(aq)  ?Will this reaction occur?This reaction will not occur REACTIVENESS The position ofhalogens in the periodic table tells you how reactive they are
  17. 17. Single Displacement Reaction Involving halogens… Cl2(g) + KBr(aq)  ? Will this reaction occur? REACTIVENESSThis reaction will occurCl2(g) + 2KBr(aq)  2KCl(aq) + Br2(l)
  18. 18. Double Displacement ReactionA D + B C A C + B D AD + BC  AC + BD
  19. 19. Double Displacement ReactionA D + B C A C + B D A reaction where elements in different compounds exchange places, producing two new compounds
  20. 20. Double Displacement ReactionPb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq)  PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)
  21. 21. Double Displacement Reaction 3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq)  Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl(aq) Will this reaction occur?A reaction will occur only if the following will be produced1)Gas2)Solid precipitate3)Water Solubility table
  22. 22. Double Displacement Reaction3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq)  Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl(aq) Will this reaction occur? YES
  23. 23. Double Displacement ReactionHow will you know if the product is a gas?CO2 is a gas, but not every gas is that simple to recognizeIf one of the products is H2CO3(aq) or NH4OH(aq), then you will get a gas! H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO2(g) NH4OH(aq)  NH3(g) + H2O(l)
  24. 24. Double Displacement ReactionFor example: Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + H2CO3(aq) H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO2(g) The equation may be re-written as… Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
  25. 25. Double Displacement ReactionNeutralization reaction: Special type ofdouble displacement reaction HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)  H2O(l) + NaCl(aq) Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide  water + salt (sodium chloride)Corrosive + corrosive  non-corrosive + non-corrosive
  26. 26. Double Displacement ReactionNeutralization Reaction Example: Antacids neutralize stomach acid 2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(aq)  CaCl2(aq) + H2CO3(aq) H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO2(g)
  27. 27. Combustion Reaction H 2Ofuel + O2 + CO2 A reaction of a fuel with oxygen, producing energy in the form of heat and/or light
  28. 28. Combustion Reaction H2Ofuel + O2 + CO2
  29. 29. Combustion Reaction Element + O2  “oxide” + energy2Mg(s) + O2(g)  2MgO(s) + energy P4(s) + 5O2(g)  P4O10(g) + energy
  30. 30. Combustion Reaction When burning a fuel, there are two types of combustion to consider: 1st Type: COMPLETE COMBUSTIONHydrocarbon + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + energy Ex. CH4(g) + 2O2(g)  CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) + energy
  31. 31. Combustion Reaction 2nd Type: INCOMPLETE COMBUSTIONHydrocarbon + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + carbon monoxide + carbon + energyEx. C4H10(g) + 5O2(g)  2CO2(g) + 5H2O(g) + CO(g) + C(s) + energy POISONOUS!!! BLACK!!!
  32. 32. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction K + Cl2  ?1) Are the reactants in their pure elemental form (i.e. O 2, Mg, Cl2)?If yes, then this reaction is a SYNTHESIS REACTIONSo there should only be ONE product, and it should containboth reactants 2K + Cl2  2KCl
  33. 33. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction H 2O  ?2) Is there only ONE reactant?If yes, then this reaction is a DECOMPOSITION REACTIONSo there should be two products, each being a separate element(i.e. Na, Ca, O2, I2, Br2) although that is not always the case 2H2O  2H2 + O2
  34. 34. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction H 2 O2  ?2) Is there only ONE reactant?If yes, then this reaction is a DECOMPOSITION REACTIONSo there should be two products, each being a separate element(i.e. Na, Ca, O2, I2, Br2) although that is not always the case 2H2O2  2H2O + O2
  35. 35. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction Zn + SnCl2  ?3) If there are 2 reactants, is one of them a pure metal on its own?If yes, then this reaction is a SINGLE DISPLACEMENT REACTIONSo the metal that is on its own must take the place of the othermetal that is in the larger compound Zn + SnCl2  ZnCl2 + Sn
  36. 36. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction NaCl + AgNO3  ?4) Are both of the reactants compounds?If yes, then this reaction is a DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT REACTIONSo the two metals must switch places with one another, formingtwo new compoundsNaCl + AgNO3  NaNO3 + AgCl
  37. 37. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction C8H18 + O2  ? 5) Is one of the reactants oxygen gas? If yes, then this reaction is a COMBUSTION REACTION (as well as a SYNTHESIS REACTION) So the products must be an oxide and energy. If one of the reactants is a hydrocarbon, then CO2 + H2O are the products.2C8H18 + 25O2  16CO2 + 18H2O + energy

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