10 fungi

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10 fungi

  1. 1. 1) The Prokaryotes: Eubacteria and Archaea 2) Protista 3) Fungi 4) Plantae 5) Animalia 6) ??? The Kingdoms of Life: A 6-part Series
  2. 2. Fungi Are Delicious Shiitake mushrooms, are a popular delicacy. Yeast is used to make bubbles and alcohol in leavened bread and beer. Blue cheese is marbled with fungi. Truffles are prized fungi used in gourmet foods.
  3. 3. Fungi Are Dangerous Fly amanita (Amanita muscaria) is common toxic mushroom. "Magic mushrooms" (Psilocybe cubensis) are abused as psychedelic drugs. Mycosis (plural: mycoses): Any fungal disease in animals. Athlete's foot is one of many mycoses.
  4. 4. Fungi Are Useful Penicillin, the first known antibiotic, is produced by bread mould (genus Penicillium). Fungi are decomposers. Lichens are used to produce natural dyes.
  5. 5. Fungi Because they are sessile (immobile), many people believe fungi and plants are closely related. As consumers, fungi are actually more closely related to animals.
  6. 6. Fungus Structure The structure of a fungus is commonly in two parts: (1) Mycelium (2) Fruiting Body Mycelium Fruiting Body
  7. 7. Fungus Structure The mycelium anchors the fungus in place and is often the bulk of its structure and mass. The mycelium and a portion of the fruiting body is composed of many thin, branching filaments called hyphae. Mycelium Fruiting Body Hyphae
  8. 8. Fungus Structure Fungus grows on and into its surface by expanding its mycelium through newly growing and branching hyphae. Hyphae in the mycelium That fuzzy mould texture on berries is from hyphae Fungal spore lands in a nutrient-rich location. It grows. And branches. And grows some more.
  9. 9. Fungus Structure Extracellular digestion: The hyphae of the mycelium secrete digestive enzymes into its food source to break it down. The nutrients are then absorbed by the fungus.
  10. 10. Fungus Structure Hyphae are long tubes of cells, connected end-to-end. They are separated by septa (singular: septum) with pores that allow the sharing of cytoplasm. Some species don't even have septa; just interconnected cells.
  11. 11. Reproduction - Fragmentation Fungi can reproduce either sexually or asexually. Asexual reproduction is done either by fragmentation or budding. Fragmentation: A piece of mycelium that broken away from the fungus is able to form a new individual.
  12. 12. Reproduction - Budding Budding: The cell begins growing a clone that remains attached to its membrane. Once the new cell reaches maturity, it separates.
  13. 13. Reproduction – Spores/Sexual The lifecycles of sexual fungi vary, but they all include hyphae developing into fruiting bodies when conditions are favourable. The fruiting body contains sporangia (singular: sporangium) or similar structures that produce spores. Sporangium Fruiting Body
  14. 14. Reproduction – Spores/Sexual A spore is a small haploid (n) reproductive cell. The fruiting body (also called mushroom or sporocarp) releases many spores that are dispersed by the air current or other organisms that they stick to. Spores are produced in the gills of many mushrooms. The puffball mushroom forcefully ejects its spores up into the air when it is disturbed.
  15. 15. Reproduction – Spores/Sexual
  16. 16. Reproduction – Spores/Sexual Spores that find a suitable location to germinate (begin growing) develop into haploid mycelium. germination Sexual Lifecycle of a Fungus (haploid nuclei fuse, then new spores are made by cell division) (haploid) (haploid) (1 cell with 2 haploid nuclei) [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]
  17. 17. Reproduction – Spores/Sexual The mushroom is developed, then the sporangia produce spores. germination Sexual Lifecycle of a Fungus (haploid nuclei fuse, then new spores are made by cell division) (haploid) (haploid) (1 cell with 2 haploid nuclei) [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]
  18. 18. Yeasts Most unicellular fungi are yeasts. They reproduce asexually by mitosis and budding. Saccharomyces cerevisiae of phylum Ascomycota is often just called "yeast". It is the anaerobic fungus that we use to make alcoholic beverages and leavened breads. A yeast infection is a common mycosis in humans. Caused by Candida albicans of phylum Ascomycota, it mainly causes oral and genital diseases.
  19. 19. Lichens Lichens are a mutual symbiosis between fungi and a producer such as green algae (kingdom Plantae) or Cyanobacteria (kingdom Bacteria).
  20. 20. Lichens The fungus surrounds the other species in its mycelium to protect it and supply water and nutrients. In return, the other organism supplies the fungus with food. This makes lichens robust enough to survive harsh climates; they are often the first organisms to grow somewhere.
  21. 21. Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizae (singular: mycorrhiza) are another mutual symbiosis some fungi form with plants. The Fungus surrounds the roots of the plant to aid with nutrient and water absorption while the photosynthetic plant provides food. Plant root Fungal hyphae
  22. 22. Summary of symbiotic relationships Symbiosis - relationships between 2 organisms; there are 3 kinds of symbiosis
  23. 23. Summary of symbiotic relationships What type of symbiotic relationship is represented? Barnacles on jaws of whale. Barnacles eat food filtered by whale. No effect on whale Commensalism
  24. 24. Summary of symbiotic relationships What type of symbiotic relationship is represented? E. Coli in human intestine E. Coli receive food / shelter Humans receive vitamins Mutualism
  25. 25. Summary of symbiotic relationships What type of symbiotic relationship is represented? Heartworms in a dog’s heart. Heart worms receive food. Dog becomes weakened and sick. Parasitism
  26. 26. Summary of symbiotic relationships What type of symbiotic relationship is represented? Mistletoe grows on trees. Mistletoe gets nutrients. Tree is deprived of nutrients. Parasitism
  27. 27. Summary of symbiotic relationships What type of symbiotic relationship is represented? Squirrels gather acorns. Squirrels have food. Acorns are planted in other places and grow to become new trees. Mutualism

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