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08a metabolism regulation



Published in Health & Medicine
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  • 1. Metabolism What is a healthy metabolism? What is an unhealthy metabolism?
  • 2. Glands Three glands help to regulate metabolism: 1. thyroid gland 2. parathyroid gland 3. anterior pituitary
  • 3. Thyroid Gland regulates glucose metabolism regulates growth and tissue differentiation Where is it located? base of neck, anterior to larynx
  • 4. Thyroid Hormones Produces two hormones: 1. thyroxine (T4) 2. iodothyronine (T3)
  • 5. Thyroid Hormones both T3 & T4 are derived from the amino acid tyrosine although derived from a soluble amino acid, T3 & T4 are more hydrophobic in nature and will diffuse into cells
  • 6. Thyroid Hormone Regulation What is the signal to indicate that thyroid hormone levels should be changed? change in metabolic rate What detects this change? hypothalamus releases thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH) to signal to the pituitary What does TRH do? signals pituitary to release thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • 7. decreased metabolism decreased blood sugar hypothalamus increase sugar metabolism TRH pituitary gland to release TSH thyroid gland to release thyroxine
  • 8. Thyroid Disorders Three thyroid disorders to know: 1. hyperthyroidism 2. hypothyroidism 3. goiters
  • 9. 1. Hyperthyroidism high thyroxine release Cause: “hot” nodules / Grave’s disease (whole thyroid) Symptoms: high glucose metabolism  weight loss with increased appetite  anxiety  increased heat release Treatment: suppressive medication
  • 10. 2. Hypothyroidism low thyroxine release Causes: iodine deficiency Symptoms: low glucose metabolism  weight gain  fatigue  decreased heat release Treatment: synthetic hormone medication
  • 11. Thyroid Disorders: Goiters Why is table salt iodized? low iodine levels result in enlarged thyroid glands - goiter
  • 12. Calcium Where is calcium stored? 99% of calcium stored in bones for structure Roles of calcium: 1. required for muscle contraction 2. important in neuronal communication 3. bone structure maintenance
  • 13. Bone Structure living bones are complex tissues osteoblasts – cell which build bones osteoclasts – cells which break down bones (release calcium)
  • 14. Parathyroid Glands smaller glands within the thyroid gland responsible for increasing Ca2+ levels in blood produces parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  • 15. hypocalcemia increased Ca2+ levels parathyroid gland increased Ca2+ uptake in intestines (diet) & kidneys (reabsorption) increases osteoclast activity activation of vitamin D; required for Ca2+ absorption release PTH
  • 16. Calcium Level Regulation different organ and hormone responsible to decrease high calcium levels organ = thyroid hormone = calcitonin
  • 17. hypercalcemia decreased Ca2+ levels thyroid gland inhibits Ca2+ absorption by intestines decreases osteoclast activity release calcitonin
  • 18. Hormone Structures PTH peptide hormone calcitonin peptide hormone vitamin D steroid-based hormone
  • 19. Parathyroid Disorders Two types of parathyroid disorders: 1. hypoparathyroidism 2. hyperparathyroidism
  • 20. 1. Hypoparathyroidism Causes: absent parathyroid from birth accidental removal upon thyroid removal Symptoms: decreased Ca2+ levels in blood sensitive nerves uncontrollable spasms of the limbs Treatment daily calcium and vitamin D supplements
  • 21. 2. Hyperparathyroidism Causes: tumors on the parathyroid gland Symptoms: kidney stones aches & pains osteoporosis depression & fatigue Treatment: removal of parathyroid tissue