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08 inside the atom
 

08 inside the atom

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    08 inside the atom 08 inside the atom Presentation Transcript

    • INSIDE THE ATOM
    • INSIDE THE ATOM RECALL: Elements and Compounds ELEMENT COMPOUNDS A substance that can not be 2 or more elements that broken down by chemical or are chemically joined physical means Sodium Bromine Oxygen table salt ethanol carbon dioxide (NaCl) (C2H5OH) (CO2) (Na) (Br2) (O2)Elements cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinarychemical means (burning, electricity, or chemical reactions)
    • INSIDE THE ATOMThere are 112+ different elements in the universe (e.g. gold, oxygen, lead, iron)
    • INSIDE THE ATOMThe smallest piece of an element that is still the element is called an atom
    • INSIDE THE ATOMInside an atom: Electrons Nucleus
    • INSIDE THE ATOMInside an atom:Electrons: Negatively-charged particles that orbit around thenucleus in fixed levels. = -1 = -1 = -1-Each electron has a charge of -1-Electrons are so small and light that they are said to have almostno mass.
    • INSIDE THE ATOMInside an atom:What attracts the electrons to the nucleus? (HINT: What attracts a negative charge?) = -1 = -1 = -1
    • INSIDE THE ATOMInside an atom:Nucleus: The centre of the atom, which is made of protons andneutrons. proton neutron
    • INSIDE THE ATOMInside the nucleus: Proton: Positively charged particle, with a mass of 1 u = +1 Neutron: Neutral particle, with a mass of 1 u =0 u = atomic mass unit = 1.660538921×10−27 kg
    • INSIDE THE ATOMSummary: Diagram Mass Charge Electron 0u -1 (outside nucleus) Proton 1u +1 (inside nucleus) Neutron 1u 0 (inside nucleus)
    • INSIDE THE ATOMIn a neutral atom, Number of protons = number of electrons +5 -5 There is no overall charge
    • INSIDE THE ATOMWhat if the number of protons and electrons did not match? Number of protons ≠ number of electrons +5 -4 The overall charge is +1. The atom is charged. A charged atom is called an ion. An atom becomes charged when it gains or loses electrons
    • INSIDE THE ATOMHere is a more accurate, to-scale representation of an atom: Nucleus Electrons form a “cloud” around the nucleus An atom is VERY small.
    • INSIDE THE ATOMHow the Periodic Table identifies atoms 11 Na sodium 22.99
    • INSIDE THE ATOMHow the Periodic Table identifies atoms atomic number 11 -number of protons -unique to each atom -number of electrons in neutral atom element symbol Na -derived from Latin name -unique to each atom element name sodium atomic mass -average atomic mass (u) -related to number of protons 22.99 and neutrons
    • INSIDE THE ATOMHow the Periodic Table identifies atoms element symbol A symbol uses one or two 11 letters (the 1st letter is always capitalized) Oxygen (O) Sodium (Na) Na sodium 22.99
    • INSIDE THE ATOMHow the Periodic Table identifies atoms atomic number -number of protons -unique to each atom -number of electrons in neutral atom 11 Na sodium 22.99
    • INSIDE THE ATOM How the Periodic Table identifies atoms atomic mass -average atomic mass -related to number of protons and neutrons 11 Na sodium 22.9922.99 – 11 protons = 12neutrons
    • INSIDE THE ATOMHow the Periodic Table identifies atoms Thus the average atomic mass can provide information regarding the total number of protons and neutrons 11 Na sodium 22.99
    • INSIDE THE ATOMHow to represent an element in Standard Atomic Notation: Mass number (A) = total number of protons and neutrons Atomic number (Z) = total number of protons Mass number (A) 23 11 Na Atomic number (Z)Both are always whole numbers
    • INSIDE THE ATOMIdentify the atom. Is this an ion? Number of protons = 7 Number of electrons = 7 .: this is nitrogen, and is not an ion N
    • INSIDE THE ATOMIdentify the atom. Is this an ion? proton Number of protons = 6 Number of electrons = 8 .: this is carbon (C), and is an ion (with a -2 charge) C2-
    • INSIDE THE ATOMIdentify the atom. Is this an ion? proton Number of protons = 6 Number of electrons = 6 .: this is carbon (C), and is not an ion C
    • INSIDE THE ATOMIdentify the atom. Is this an ion? proton Number of protons = 3 Number of electrons = 3 .: this is lithium (Li), and is not an ion Li
    • INSIDE THE ATOM 2 or more combined elements will be called a compound. This is another example of a pure substance. ELEMENT COMPOUNDSA substance that can not be 2 or more elements thatbroken down by chemical or are chemically joined physical meansSodium Bromine Oxygen table salt ethanol carbon dioxide (NaCl) (C2H5OH) (CO2) (Na) (Br2) (O2)