08 human organ systems

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  • When capillaries unite to form venules, and then veins, the area decreases and the blood flow speeds up

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  • 1. Human Organ Systems
  • 2. Human Organ Systems The main functions to sustain life are accomplished by 11 organ systems working together
  • 3. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
  • 4. Human Organ Systems These organ systems are all developed from a fertilized egg, which divides into stem cells Stem cell: An unspecialized cell that can produce various specialized cells.
  • 5. Human Organ Systems The stem cells develop into specialized cells, which form tissues. Tissues organize into organs, and organs organize into organ systems. Levels of cellular organization:
  • 6. Digestive System Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breaking down of food into smaller components
  • 7. Digestive Tract: Mouth, Teeth, Tongue, and Glands Tearing /Cuspid Grinding /Bicuspid Tearing and grinding Cutting
  • 8. Digestive Tract: Mouth, Teeth, Tongue, and Glands
  • 9. Digestive Tract: Mouth, Teeth, Tongue, and Glands The saliva, teeth, mouth, and tongue form a food bolus This bolus goes on into the next part of the digestive tract
  • 10. Digestive Tract: Pharynx and Epiglottis Pharynx
  • 11. Digestive Tract: Pharynx and Epiglottis Epiglottis
  • 12. Digestive Tract: Pharynx and Epiglottis The pharynx connects the oral cavity to the next part of the digestive system (the epiglottis and esophagus) The epiglottis prevents food from going into your lungs through the larynx
  • 13. Digestive Tract: Pharynx and Epiglottis
  • 14. Digestive Tract: Pharynx and Epiglottis Esophagus
  • 15. Digestive Tract: Esophagus Esophagus: Muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach
  • 16. Digestive Tract: Esophagus Peristalsis: Radially symmetrical contraction of muscles which forms a wave down the muscular tube.
  • 17. Digestive Tract: Esophagus
  • 18. Digestive Tract: Stomach Stomach
  • 19. Digestive Tract: Stomach
  • 20. Digestive Tract: Stomach Lower esophageal sphincter: If the lower esophageal sphincter is not closed properly, stomach acid enter the esophagus and cause heartburn Also known as cardiac sphincter
  • 21. Digestive Tract: Stomach Stomach acid: -Also known as gastric juice -Contains hydrochloric acid (HCl) -pH of 2 (approximately) -Contains digestive enzymes like pepsin (digests proteins) -Chemically breaks down food
  • 22. Digestive Tract: Stomach Why doesn’t the acid burn through the stomach? The rugae lining the stomach continuously secretes mucus to protect the stomach The rugae allow the stomach to expand dramatically (up to 1 litre)
  • 23. Digestive Tract: Stomach Sometimes the acid does burn through… The result is an ulcer Can be caused by -bacterial infection (i.e. Helicobacter Pylori) -weakened mucosal lining -anti-inflammatory medications (i.e. aspirin) -smoking is associated as well
  • 24. Digestive Tract: Stomach Stomach Ulcer
  • 25. Digestive Tract: Stomach Pyloric sphincter
  • 26. Digestive Tract: Stomach Pyloric Sphincter: Strong ring of smooth muscle which connects stomach to small intestines. Enables chyme (semidigested food from stomach) to enter the duodenum.
  • 27. Digestive Tract: Stomach Chyme
  • 28. Digestive Tract: Small Intestines Small Intestine
  • 29. Digestive Tract: Small Intestines Small Intestines: (3 parts) -Duodenum -Jejunum -Ileum
  • 30. Digestive Tract: Duodenum, Pancreas, & Gall Bladder Duodenum: The gall bladder and pancreas have ducts going into the duodenum. -10-12 inches long -most chemical digestion takes place here
  • 31. Digestive Tract: Duodenum, Pancreas, & Gall Bladder Pancreas: -Secretes sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) to neutralize stomach acid -Secretes pancreatic juice, a mixture of enzymes like trypsin, pancreatic lipase, pancreatic amylase
  • 32. Digestive Tract: Duodenum, Pancreas, & Gall Bladder Gall Bladder: Stores bile produced by the liver. Bile emulsifies fats to allow greater surface area for fat enzymes (lipases) to work
  • 33. Digestive Tract: Jejunum Jejunum: Roughly 2.5 meters long. Absorption takes place here Jejunum
  • 34. Digestive Tract: Jejunum Jejunum: Lined with longitudinal and circular muscles to perform peristalsis. Has structures called villi.
  • 35. Digestive Tract: Jejunum Villi: -finger-like projections of the small intestine lining - More surface area to absorb nutrients. The cells lining each villus can perform -Active transport (transport of nutrients requiring energy) -Passive transport (transport of nutrients not requiring energy)
  • 36. Digestive Tract: Jejunum Villi
  • 37. Digestive Tract: Ileum Ileum: -2.4 meters long -absorption (has villi) -also absorbs vitamin B12 and bile salts
  • 38. Digestive Tract: Ileum
  • 39. Digestive Tract: Large Intestines Colon: -Absorbs water -Pass waste material from the body -Contains colonic bacteria which produce vitamin K, vitamin B12, thiamine, and riboflavin (mutualistic relationship)
  • 40. Digestive Tract: Rectum, Anal Canal, Anus Rectum: -Forms peristaltic waves to expel feces through the anal canal -Stretch receptors trigger contractions when rectum is full
  • 41. Digestive Tract: Rectum, Anal Canal, Anus Anal sphincter: Exterior and interior sphincters pull the anus up over the exiting feces
  • 42. Excretory system Liquid wastes are eliminated by the excretory system. The kidneys filter the blood, and wastes are removed through urine (stored in the bladder)
  • 43. The Circulatory System Circulatory system: -transports nutrients and oxygen to cells -carries wastes to the organs responsible for eliminating them from the body.
  • 44. The Circulatory System Pathway of blood flow: Heart Vein Artery Venule Arteriole Capillary
  • 45. The Circulatory System Types of blood vessels: Vessel Structure Function Artery Thick elastic walls Small circumference Transports blood AWAY from the heart Vein Thin, less elastic walls with valves Large circumference Transports blood TOWARDS the heart Very thin wall Smallest circumference Materials are exchanged between the blood and the body Capillary Diagram
  • 46. The Circulatory System Arteries and veins A. Cross-section B. Longitudinal section
  • 47. The Circulatory System Capillaries Walls of blood vessels are made up of cells called endothelial cells. The thin layer of endothelial cells allows diffusion to occur more rapidly.
  • 48. The Circulatory System Capillaries Red blood cells travel through the capillary in single file. Blood velocity is the slowest in capillaries
  • 49. The Circulatory System
  • 50. Superior vena cava inferior vena cava
  • 51. Superior vena cava Right atrium Tricuspid valve inferior vena cava
  • 52. Superior vena cava Right atrium Tricuspid valve Right ventricle inferior vena cava
  • 53. Superior vena cava Pulmonary artery Pulmonary valve Right atrium Tricuspid valve Right ventricle inferior vena cava
  • 54. Superior vena cava Pulmonary artery Pulmonary valve Right atrium Tricuspid valve Right ventricle inferior vena cava
  • 55. Superior vena cava Pulmonary artery Pulmonary valve Right atrium Tricuspid valve Right ventricle inferior vena cava LUNGS OXYGENATE THE BLOOD
  • 56. Superior vena cava Pulmonary artery Pulmonary valve Right atrium Tricuspid valve Right ventricle inferior vena cava
  • 57. Superior vena cava Pulmonary artery Pulmonary valve Pulmonary vein Right atrium Left Atrium Tricuspid valve Mitral valve Right ventricle inferior vena cava
  • 58. Superior vena cava Pulmonary artery Pulmonary valve Right atrium Left Atrium Tricuspid valve Left ventricle Right ventricle inferior vena cava Mitral valve
  • 59. Superior vena cava Aorta Pulmonary artery Pulmonary valve Right atrium Left Atrium Tricuspid valve Left ventricle Aortic valve Mitral valve Right ventricle inferior vena cava Septum
  • 60. Superior vena cava Aorta Pulmonary artery Pulmonary valve Right atrium Left Atrium Tricuspid valve Left ventricle Aortic valve Mitral valve Right ventricle inferior vena cava Septum
  • 61. Superior vena cava Aorta Bicuspid valve Pulmonary artery Pulmonary valve Right atrium Left Atrium Tricuspid valve Left ventricle Aortic valve Mitral valve Right ventricle inferior vena cava Septum
  • 62. Superior vena cava Aorta Pulmonary artery Pulmonary valve Right atrium Left Atrium Tricuspid valve Left ventricle Aortic valve Mitral valve Right ventricle inferior vena cava Septum
  • 63. semilunar valve atrioventricular valve atrioventricular valve semilunar valve
  • 64. The Circulatory System Comparing atria and ventricles Atria Ventricles Location Upper half of heart Lower half of heart Thickness Thinner walls (pumps blood to ventricles below) Thicker walls (pumps blood to lungs or to rest of the body)
  • 65. The Circulatory System Atherosclerosis
  • 66. The Circulatory System Atherosclerosis Treatment: Coronary Bypass
  • 67. The Circulatory System Atherosclerosis treatment: Angioplasty and stint
  • 68. The Circulatory System Where does oxygen enter the blood? Alveoli: The alveoli (singular: alveolus) are spherical hollow cavities in the lungs which increase surface area for gas exchange. Capillaries line the exterior of the alveoli to absorb oxygen.
  • 69. The Circulatory System Where does oxygen enter the blood?
  • 70. The Circulatory System Where does oxygen enter the blood? Gas exchange: O2 O2 O2 O2 Alveolus Carbon dioxide (a waste product) leaves the blood vessel into the alveolus. Oxygen goes into the blood vessel. CO2 CO2 CO2 Blood vessel CO2