08 hiv and aids[1]

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  • http://www.aidsactioncoalition.org/images/hiv_virus.gif http://www.rhodes.edu/biology/glindquester/viruses/pagespass/hiv/retrovirus.jpg
  • http://www.aidsactioncoalition.org/images/hiv_virus.gif http://www.rhodes.edu/biology/glindquester/viruses/pagespass/hiv/retrovirus.jpg
  • http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/hardin/md/cdc/6058.html http://www.geradts.com/anil/ij///vol_003_no_002/reviews/tb/page001.html
  • http://www.aidsactioncoalition.org/images/hiv_virus.gif http://www.rhodes.edu/biology/glindquester/viruses/pagespass/hiv/retrovirus.jpg
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dn1tNIrMPRk&feature=related
  • Campbell text: Figure 43.20
  • Campbell text: Figure 43.20
  • 08 hiv and aids[1]

    1. 1. HIV and AIDS
    2. 2. HIV and AIDS HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    3. 3. HIV and AIDS AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome OR Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
    4. 4. HIV and AIDS: MYTHS <ul><li>I’ve just been diagnosed with HIV and I’m going to die </li></ul><ul><li>HIV can’t be cured </li></ul><ul><li>Unprotected sex with an HIV-positive person will infect the partner100% of the time </li></ul><ul><li>Unprotected oral sex cannot pass HIV </li></ul><ul><li>If both partners have HIV, then protected sex is not necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Only gay men and drug users get HIV </li></ul><ul><li>HIV and AIDS are the same thing </li></ul>TRUE FALSE
    5. 5. HIV and AIDS
    6. 6. <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>1981 Large number of cases of Kaposi’s cancer in the US (caused by Human herpesvirus 8) </li></ul><ul><li>1983 HIV was identified as the virus that causes AIDS </li></ul>HIV and AIDS
    7. 7. HIV and AIDS Peripheral Fat Wasting (lipodystrophy)
    8. 8. Central Dogma DNA  RNA  Protein <ul><li>DNA = genetic information (original instructions) </li></ul><ul><li>RNA = a copy of the genetic information (message) </li></ul><ul><li>Protein = building blocks of life (workers) </li></ul><ul><li>Transcription : DNA  RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Translation : RNA  proteins </li></ul>HIV and AIDS
    9. 9. Transcription HIV and AIDS Copying DNA into RNA Reverse Transcription? Copying RNA into DNA
    10. 10. HIV: A retrovirus Receptors: CD4 molecules Coreceptors: fusin, CCR5 HIV and AIDS
    11. 11. Retroviruses (RNA Virus) Retroviruses have an enzyme (called reverse transcriptase) that is capable of reverse transcribing their RNA into DNA . This viral DNA can then be integrated into the host cell’s genome. HIV and AIDS
    12. 12. <ul><li>Steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Viral RNA enters the host cell along with the enzyme reverse transcriptase </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse transcriptase copies the viral RNA into DNA </li></ul><ul><li>The reverse transcribed viral DNA is integrated into the host cell’s genome </li></ul>Retroviruses (RNA Virus) HIV and AIDS
    13. 13. <ul><li>STEP 1: Viral RNA enters the host cell along with the enzyme reverse transcriptase </li></ul>Retroviruses (RNA Virus) HIV and AIDS
    14. 14. <ul><li>STEP 2: Reverse transcriptase copies the viral RNA into DNA </li></ul>Retroviruses (RNA Virus) HIV and AIDS
    15. 15. <ul><li>STEP 3: The reverse transcribed viral DNA is integrated into the host cell’s genome </li></ul>Retroviruses (RNA Virus) HIV and AIDS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dn1tNIrMPRk&feature=related
    16. 16. Retroviruses (RNA Virus) Retroviruses replicate with a high mutation rate, because reverse transcriptase makes several errors! This increases it’s ability to evolve and survive. HIV and AIDS Some mutations will change the virus’ “appearance” and make it unrecognizable to the immune system
    17. 17. T-Cells <ul><li>T-cell is a type of white blood cell (leukocytes) </li></ul><ul><li>The thymus is responsible for maturing the T-cells to fight infections. </li></ul><ul><li>“ T” stands for thymus </li></ul><ul><li>T-cells play a major role in our immune system </li></ul>HIV and AIDS
    18. 18. Pathology of HIV <ul><li>Two major strains: HIV-1 and HIV-2 </li></ul><ul><li>HIV primarily infects helper T cells in the immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Helper T cells normally trigger other white blood cells to make antibodies </li></ul>Campbell Fig. 43.19 HIV and AIDS
    19. 19. HIV targets helper T-Cells <ul><li>HIV has surface markers that specifically recognize helper T-cells </li></ul>HIV and AIDS
    20. 20. HIV targets helper T-Cells HIV and AIDS
    21. 21. HIV and AIDS Helper T-cells are essential to the immune system HIV infects helper T-cells Therefore HIV stops the immune system from working
    22. 22. Helper T-cells are essential to the immune system HIV and AIDS HIV Destroy foreign cells Kill infected cells
    23. 23. HIV treatment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzfnxCEsck4 HIV and AIDS
    24. 24. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eS1GODinO8w
    25. 25. How HIV is spread <ul><li>By having unprotected sex with an infected person </li></ul><ul><li>By sharing needles with an infected person </li></ul><ul><li>HIV positive mothers can pass it on to their unborn children </li></ul><ul><li>Blood transfusion involving infected blood </li></ul>HIV and AIDS
    26. 26. How HIV is spread HIV and AIDS
    27. 27. How vaccines work http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C061bmvk7Hw HIV and AIDS
    28. 28. Challenges with AIDS vaccines <ul><li>HIV is a retrovirus which integrates viral DNA into host DNA </li></ul><ul><li>HIV has a high rate of mutations </li></ul><ul><li>HIV attacks the body’s defense system </li></ul>HIV and AIDS
    29. 29. Retroviruses (RNA Virus) HIV and AIDS
    30. 30. Retroviruses (RNA Virus) HIV and AIDS
    31. 31. Retroviruses (RNA Virus) HIV and AIDS
    32. 32. Retroviruses (RNA Virus) HIV and AIDS
    33. 33. Retroviruses (RNA Virus) HIV and AIDS
    34. 34. Retroviruses (RNA Virus) HIV and AIDS
    35. 35. Retroviruses (RNA Virus) HIV and AIDS

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