Pistil:
Stamen:
Which one is male
and which one is
female?
Plant mating
Pollination?
• Transfer of pollen
grains from anther to
stigma
Pollinators
• Bees
• Beetles
• Flies
• Wasps
• Butterflies
• Moths
• Birds
• Bats
• Snails
• Rats
• Mice
• Wind
• Water
Self vs. Cross
• Self pollination
(black arrow)
– Pollination within
the same plant
• Cross pollination
(red arrow)
– Poll...
Prevention of Inbreeding
• Genetic: incomplete
flowers (some flowers
don’t have both
“male” and “female”
reproductive orga...
Prevention of Inbreeding
• Molecular: self-
incompatibility
• Common in wild
Preventing inbreeding
• Structural Adaptations
• Distance between
stigma and anther
Inbreeding
• Timing: flower at different times
• Receptive stigma at different times
• Production of pollen at different t...
Co-evolution
• Reciprocal adaptation, pollinator and
flower evolve together
• Adapt to each other
How to advertise?
• Large Petals
Advertisement
• Bright colours
Advertisement
• Big Pollen Load
• Large Stigma
Advertisement
• Pollen
guides/indicator
Advertisement
• Reward
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-h8I3cqpgnA
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
=FHaWu2rcP94&feature=...
Pollinators
• Insects pollinate about 70% of all
angiosperms
• Crops pollinated by bees provide 30% of
human food
Pollinators
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
=MQlq5QtRI9o
Of Birds, Bees, and Bats
• Bees: see UV range
• Attracted to
yellow/blue
• Flowers with UV
markings
• Scent (1-2 km)
• Hai...
Of Birds, Bees, and Bats
• Birds: Visible light, not
UV
• Red, orange, yellow
• No scent
Of Birds, Bees, and Bats
• Bats: can’t see well
• Strong scent
(fermented fruit)
• Bloom at night
• Dull, white petal
flow...
Germinate!
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
=d26AhcKeEbE&feature=related
Conditions for germination
• Dormancy: resting period, metabolic
processes in the embryo cells are very
slow
• Begins: abs...
Some very needy seeds
Begins with the hormones
• Need gibberellins to
be released
• Produce enzymes to
break down storage
molecules
• Once the s...
Dispersal
• Tumble weeds
• Wing
• Parachute
• Spines/Barbs
Seed Dispersal
• Water
• Animal Behaviour
Seed Dispersal
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
=zbQ1jWl3AOM
Fruit
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07 plant mating

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Transcript of "07 plant mating"

  1. 1. Pistil: Stamen: Which one is male and which one is female?
  2. 2. Plant mating
  3. 3. Pollination? • Transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma
  4. 4. Pollinators • Bees • Beetles • Flies • Wasps • Butterflies • Moths • Birds • Bats • Snails • Rats • Mice • Wind • Water
  5. 5. Self vs. Cross • Self pollination (black arrow) – Pollination within the same plant • Cross pollination (red arrow) – Pollination with another plant of the same species
  6. 6. Prevention of Inbreeding • Genetic: incomplete flowers (some flowers don’t have both “male” and “female” reproductive organs)
  7. 7. Prevention of Inbreeding • Molecular: self- incompatibility • Common in wild
  8. 8. Preventing inbreeding • Structural Adaptations • Distance between stigma and anther
  9. 9. Inbreeding • Timing: flower at different times • Receptive stigma at different times • Production of pollen at different times • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=igkjcuw_n_U
  10. 10. Co-evolution • Reciprocal adaptation, pollinator and flower evolve together • Adapt to each other
  11. 11. How to advertise? • Large Petals
  12. 12. Advertisement • Bright colours
  13. 13. Advertisement • Big Pollen Load • Large Stigma
  14. 14. Advertisement • Pollen guides/indicator
  15. 15. Advertisement • Reward • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-h8I3cqpgnA • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =FHaWu2rcP94&feature=related
  16. 16. Pollinators • Insects pollinate about 70% of all angiosperms • Crops pollinated by bees provide 30% of human food
  17. 17. Pollinators • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =MQlq5QtRI9o
  18. 18. Of Birds, Bees, and Bats • Bees: see UV range • Attracted to yellow/blue • Flowers with UV markings • Scent (1-2 km) • Hairy abdomen
  19. 19. Of Birds, Bees, and Bats • Birds: Visible light, not UV • Red, orange, yellow • No scent
  20. 20. Of Birds, Bees, and Bats • Bats: can’t see well • Strong scent (fermented fruit) • Bloom at night • Dull, white petal flowers
  21. 21. Germinate! • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =d26AhcKeEbE&feature=related
  22. 22. Conditions for germination • Dormancy: resting period, metabolic processes in the embryo cells are very slow • Begins: absorption of water and heat from soil • Others need oxygen and light
  23. 23. Some very needy seeds
  24. 24. Begins with the hormones • Need gibberellins to be released • Produce enzymes to break down storage molecules • Once the seed coats swell, can use oxygen
  25. 25. Dispersal • Tumble weeds • Wing • Parachute • Spines/Barbs
  26. 26. Seed Dispersal • Water • Animal Behaviour
  27. 27. Seed Dispersal • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =zbQ1jWl3AOM
  28. 28. Fruit

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