07 glucose-stress-regulation

332
-1

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
332
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

07 glucose-stress-regulation

  1. 1. Pancreas
  2. 2. Pancreas
  3. 3. Pancreasto produce: Two cell types 1. 2. digestive enzymes – exocrine acini hormones – islets of Langerhans 1 – 2% of pancreas are the islets of Langerhans
  4. 4. Islets of Langerhans Two hormones are produced: 1. insulin – beta cells 2. glucagon – alpha cells blue = cell nuclei green = insulin red = glucagon
  5. 5. Insulin Function When is insulin released? after eating hyperglycemia decreased blood sugar beta cells increased glucose uptake glycogen production in liver cellular signals for insulin release
  6. 6. Glucagon Function What does glucagon do? breaks down glycogen hypoglycemia increased blood sugar alpha cells glucose release from liver glucose production in liver cellular signals for glucagon release
  7. 7. Blood Sugar Diseases Three types of diabetes: 1. Diabetes Mellitus - Type 1 2. Diabetes Mellitus - Type 2 3. Diabetes Insipidus
  8. 8. Diabetes Mellitus – Type I also known as juvenile diabetes Cause  immune system attacking insulin-producing beta cells Symptoms  increased thirst, hunger and urination Treatment  daily dosage of insulin
  9. 9. Diabetes Mellitus – Type II formerly known as adult-onset diabetes Cause  insulin resistance / deficiency Symptoms  increased thirst, hunger and urination  fatigue / lethargy Treatment  maintain healthy diet and frequent exercise  medication only upon progression of disease state
  10. 10. Diabetes Insipidus Cause  deficiency of ADH Symptoms  excessive thirst and urination  reduction of fluid intake does not affect urination frequency  no increased blood glucose Treatment  ADH replacement / stimulating medication
  11. 11. Canadian Connection Frederick Banting & Charles Best  Nobel Prize – 1923  insulin isolation  tied off ducts to digestive tract  cell producing digestive enzymes shrivelled  only islets of Langerhans remained
  12. 12. Video Testimonies University of Alberta  developed islet cell transplant method Islet Transplant Animation Photo Journal News Feature
  13. 13. Hormone Structure  insulin  peptide hormone glucagon  peptide hormone
  14. 14. Adrenal Glands adrenal – “next to” the renal system Two main sections: 1. adrenal cortex  long-term stress 2. adrenal medulla  short-term stress
  15. 15. Adrenal Gland
  16. 16. Adrenal Cortex Long-term stress sends ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) pituitary ACTH Produces two types of hormones: 1. glucocorticoids 2. mineralcorticoids adrenal cortex
  17. 17. 1. Glucocorticoids class of steroid hormones for glucose regulation  specific example: cortisol What happens when you’re stressed out?  glucose not taken in by muscles  amino acids made into glucose  fat tissue broken down for energy
  18. 18. 2. Mineralcorticoids class of steroid hormones for mineral regulation  specific example: aldosterone What happens when you’re stressed out?  blood pressure rises due to increase sodium & H2O reabsorption
  19. 19. Adrenal Medulla Short-term stress detected by hypothalamus Produces two hormones: 1. epinephrine (adrenaline) 2. norepinephrine (noradrenaline)  both compounds are examples of catecholamines, which are also neurotransmitters
  20. 20. Hormone Structures epinephrine  hydrophilic norepinephrine  hydrophilic
  21. 21. Flight-or-Fight Response What’s your response?  increased heart rate  increased breathing  blood vessel dilation  more O2 delivery  iris dilation  collect maximum visual information  these responses are induced by catecholamine release

×