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07 glucose-stress-regulation
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07 glucose-stress-regulation

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  • 1. Pancreas
  • 2. Pancreas
  • 3. Pancreasto produce: Two cell types 1. 2. digestive enzymes – exocrine acini hormones – islets of Langerhans 1 – 2% of pancreas are the islets of Langerhans
  • 4. Islets of Langerhans Two hormones are produced: 1. insulin – beta cells 2. glucagon – alpha cells blue = cell nuclei green = insulin red = glucagon
  • 5. Insulin Function When is insulin released? after eating hyperglycemia decreased blood sugar beta cells increased glucose uptake glycogen production in liver cellular signals for insulin release
  • 6. Glucagon Function What does glucagon do? breaks down glycogen hypoglycemia increased blood sugar alpha cells glucose release from liver glucose production in liver cellular signals for glucagon release
  • 7. Blood Sugar Diseases Three types of diabetes: 1. Diabetes Mellitus - Type 1 2. Diabetes Mellitus - Type 2 3. Diabetes Insipidus
  • 8. Diabetes Mellitus – Type I also known as juvenile diabetes Cause  immune system attacking insulin-producing beta cells Symptoms  increased thirst, hunger and urination Treatment  daily dosage of insulin
  • 9. Diabetes Mellitus – Type II formerly known as adult-onset diabetes Cause  insulin resistance / deficiency Symptoms  increased thirst, hunger and urination  fatigue / lethargy Treatment  maintain healthy diet and frequent exercise  medication only upon progression of disease state
  • 10. Diabetes Insipidus Cause  deficiency of ADH Symptoms  excessive thirst and urination  reduction of fluid intake does not affect urination frequency  no increased blood glucose Treatment  ADH replacement / stimulating medication
  • 11. Canadian Connection Frederick Banting & Charles Best  Nobel Prize – 1923  insulin isolation  tied off ducts to digestive tract  cell producing digestive enzymes shrivelled  only islets of Langerhans remained
  • 12. Video Testimonies University of Alberta  developed islet cell transplant method Islet Transplant Animation Photo Journal News Feature
  • 13. Hormone Structure  insulin  peptide hormone glucagon  peptide hormone
  • 14. Adrenal Glands adrenal – “next to” the renal system Two main sections: 1. adrenal cortex  long-term stress 2. adrenal medulla  short-term stress
  • 15. Adrenal Gland
  • 16. Adrenal Cortex Long-term stress sends ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) pituitary ACTH Produces two types of hormones: 1. glucocorticoids 2. mineralcorticoids adrenal cortex
  • 17. 1. Glucocorticoids class of steroid hormones for glucose regulation  specific example: cortisol What happens when you’re stressed out?  glucose not taken in by muscles  amino acids made into glucose  fat tissue broken down for energy
  • 18. 2. Mineralcorticoids class of steroid hormones for mineral regulation  specific example: aldosterone What happens when you’re stressed out?  blood pressure rises due to increase sodium & H2O reabsorption
  • 19. Adrenal Medulla Short-term stress detected by hypothalamus Produces two hormones: 1. epinephrine (adrenaline) 2. norepinephrine (noradrenaline)  both compounds are examples of catecholamines, which are also neurotransmitters
  • 20. Hormone Structures epinephrine  hydrophilic norepinephrine  hydrophilic
  • 21. Flight-or-Fight Response What’s your response?  increased heart rate  increased breathing  blood vessel dilation  more O2 delivery  iris dilation  collect maximum visual information  these responses are induced by catecholamine release