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06 vascular tissue

06 vascular tissue






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06 vascular tissue 06 vascular tissue Presentation Transcript

  • Vascular tissue
  • PLANTS Vascular plants need to transport substances between the roots, stems, and leaves. Xylem – transports water and nutrients from soil (i.e. minerals) Phloem – transports sugar Vascular tissue
  • PLANTS Vascular tissue Review: Some key terms Diffusion Osmosis Passive Transport Active Transport
  • PLANTS Vascular tissue Diffusion: Substances move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.
  • PLANTS Vascular tissue Osmosis: Diffusion of water Water can diffuse into and out of cells based on concentration of solute inside and outside a cell.
  • PLANTS Vascular tissue Passive transport: Movement of substance across a membrane without using energy Passive transport relies on diffusion and concentration gradients.
  • PLANTS Vascular tissue Active transport: Movement of substances across a membrane using energy against concentration gradient.
  • PLANTS Xylem -Transports water. -xylem is made up of long hollow tubes formed by non-living cell walls, called tracheids or vessel elements. -This non-living matter was once living. (cells die, leaving cell walls as tubes) Vascular tissue
  • PLANTS Xylem Tracheids Vascular tissue
  • PLANTS Xylem Vessel elements Vascular tissue
  • PLANTS Xylem Tracheids vs. vessel elements Vascular tissue
  • PLANTS Into the roots… In the roots, water crosses* through the cortex. Then it must pass through the endodermis. The Casparian strip of the endodermis blocks substances from passing between endodermis cells. Vascular tissue
  • Vascular tissue PLANTS Into the roots… *Water either enters the cortex cells by 1) osmosis from cell to cell 2) flows between cells. Minerals are actively pumped across cell membranes into the xylem. H2O
  • PLANTS Into the roots… Root pressure – nutrients pumped into the xylem cause water to follow by osmosis Vascular tissue
  • PLANTS Into the stem… Water has to move against gravity in the stems. Accomplished by root pressure and capillary action. Vascular tissue
  • PLANTS Into the stem… Capillary action – water molecules stick to each other and can rise up narrow tubes (like the xylem) Capillary action increases as the diameter of the tube decreases. Vascular tissue
  • PLANTS Into the stem… Cohesion-adhesion– Cohesion – force that holds water molecules together Adhesion – water molecules stick to certain surfaces Vascular tissue
  • PLANTS Into the leaves… Water moves to the leaves due to transpiration. Transpiration – Evaporation of water through stomata of leaves Vascular tissue
  • PLANTS Vascular tissue Plants need water to maintain turgor pressure. Turgor pressure – pressure caused by fluid pushing against the cell wall Without turgor pressure, plants will wilt
  • PLANTS Phloem -Transports dissolved nutrients (food) -Phloem tissue is made up of living tissue -Made of -companion cells -sieve tube element -sieve plate Vascular tissue
  • PLANTS Vascular tissue Phloem Companion cell Assists the survival of sieve tube cells Sieve tube (cells without a nucleus forming a hollow tube) Sieve plate (perforated end of sieve tube cells)
  • PLANTS How does sugar move through the phloem? Both active and passive transport from source cells to sink cells. Source cells: Cells with high concentration of sugar (i.e. leaf cell) Sink cells: Cells with low concentration of sugar (i.e. root cell) Vascular tissue
  • PLANTS Phloem & tree sap -In plants, roots store STARCH, a polysaccharide which is NOT soluble in water. -Starch is broken down into SUCROSE, a disaccharide which IS soluble in water. -In the spring, the SUCROSE is then transported from the roots (where it is stored during the winter) to the developing leaves through phloem. -The leaves convert the SUCROSE into glucose, a monosaccharide. Vascular tissue
  • PLANTS Phloem & tree sap -The glucose provides energy for the GROWTH OF LEAVES. -Once leaves have grown, they can perform PHOTOSYNTHESIS to produce their own glucose. -Excess glucose is converted into STARCH in the chloroplasts (an organelle). -The STARCH is then converted into sucrose, which is transported to the ROOTS through the phloem. Vascular tissue
  • PLANTS Phloem & tree sap -The carbohydrate that plants transport in the phloem is SUCROSE, a disaccharide. -Sucrose is converted into the polysaccharide STARCH in the roots -Sucrose is converted into the monosaccharide GLUCOSE in the leaves in early spring. Vascular tissue
  • PLANTS Phloem & tree sap Glucose (leaves) Spring Summer and Fall Sucrose (stem) Spring Summer and Fall Starch (roots) -winter storage Vascular tissue