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05 urine-hormone regulation
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  • 1. Water Balance Three physiological characteristics controlled through the kidney: 1. Osmotic Pressure 2. Blood Pressure 3. pH Balance
  • 2. Osmotic Pressure osmotic pressure – water pressure due to presence of solutes osmoregulation - regulation of osmotic pressure of bodily fluid and cells antidiuretic hormone (ADH) – regulates blood osmotic pressure through kidneys (a short peptide hormone)
  • 3. Osmotic Pressure What type of situation would cause increased osmotic pressure? sweating / dehydration causes increased ADH production to: increase water reabsorption dilute solutes in blood ADH produced in hypothalamus transported to pituitary gland
  • 4. osmoreceptors in hypothalamus detect increased osmotic pressure  sends signals to pituitary gland
  • 5. Osmotic Pressure increased osmotic pressure decreased osmotic pressure osmoreceptors increased sensation of thirst increased water reabsorption by kidney pituitary gland; release ADH
  • 6. Osmotic Pressure ADH increases H2O reabsorption dilutes blood concentrates urine What part of the nephron does ADH affect? collecting ducts
  • 7. ADH Activity The following animation will contain some terminology not covered. Animation
  • 8. Hormones and Enzymes Side Note: hormones only active when needed hormones usually produced, but activated by enzyme cleavage hormones readily available rather than waiting for the entire process of transcription / translation (too long!!)
  • 9. Blood Pressure blood pressure – increase force of blood on blood vessels aldosterone – hormone which increases Na+ reabsorption in kidneys increased H2O in blood increased blood pressure
  • 10. Blood Pressure aldosterone produced in adrenal gland, above kidney
  • 11. Blood Pressure
  • 12. Blood Pressure What part of the kidney would be affected by low blood pressure? glomerulus; high blood pressure needed for filtration decreased water pressure detected by juxtaglomerular apparatus receptors next to the glomerulus
  • 13. Blood Pressure the enzyme renin, is released angiotensinogen renin angiotensin
  • 14. Blood Pressure Two important functions of angiotensin: 1. causes blood vessel constriction 2. stimulates aldosterone release
  • 15. low blood pressure blood pressure increases juxtaglomerular apparatus constrict blood vessels induce aldosterone release; increase Na+ reabsorption cells to release renin; produce angiotensin
  • 16. pH Balance How do living systems regulate the amount of acid / base in their systems? buffers – conjugate acid-base pairs H3PO4 H2PO4- + H+
  • 17. pH Balance conversion of CO2 to other compounds help regulate blood pH H2O + CO2 H2CO3 carbonic acid HCO3- + H+ carbonate ion HCO3- is reabsorbed in the proximal and distal tubules