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05 phylogeny modern taxonomy

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  • Rank – FamilyTaxon - Cervidae
  • Transcript

    • 1. Recall: Phylogeny: the study of the evolutionary relatedness between and among species.
    • 2. Phylogeny and Modern Taxonomy Humans have family trees that go back for many generations to show our lineage and our ancestors. These family trees show how 2 people may be related to each other and by how many generations.
    • 3. Phylogenetic trees share the same idea as family trees. They show how species have grown apart (evolved) over time. Phylogeny and Modern Taxonomy
    • 4. Phylogeny Many Years Ago Present Branches are Common Ancestors
    • 5. DNA Barcoding
    • 6. Phylogeny: Clades Clade: a branch of a phylogenetic tree that represents all of the organisms that share a single common ancestor.
    • 7. Phylogeny: Clades Clades can be any size, and occur at branches in phylogenetic trees. Clades are different from taxa, but taxonomists do try make them match-up.
    • 8. Think. Pair. Share Identify a clade in this tree.
    • 9. Phylogeny: Clades Yes
    • 10. Phylogeny: Clades Yes
    • 11. Phylogeny: Clades Yes
    • 12. Phylogeny: Clades Yes
    • 13. Phylogeny: Clades No
    • 14. Phylogeny: Clades Yes
    • 15. Phylogeny: Clades Yes
    • 16. Phylogeny: Clades Yes
    • 17. Phylogeny: Clades Yes
    • 18. Phylogeny: Clades Yes
    • 19. To which other organism is Cervus elaphus most closely related? At what rank and taxon are they related? Think. Pair. Share.
    • 20. Think. Pair. Share. Group these species.
    • 21. * In modern taxonomy, crocodiles are grouped with birds because they share a more recent common ancestor. Traditional Classification Phylogenetic Classification Class Mammalia Rodents Mammaliaformes Clade Rodents Class Reptilia Snakes Lizards Crocodiles "Reptile" Clade Turtles Lizards Class Aves Birds Archosaur Clade Crocodiles Birds * In traditional taxonomy, crocodiles are grouped with lizards and turtles based on physical and behavioural characteristics. Phylogeny and Modern Taxonomy
    • 22. "Reptile" Clade Archosaur Clade Phylogeny and Modern Taxonomy
    • 23. Phylogeny and Modern Taxonomy: Think. Pair. Share What are the drawbacks of traditional taxonomy? - dichotomous keys may be ambiguous or subjective. - following a dichotomous key takes time. - mutations may lead to incorrect classification. This cat has a feline dwarfism mutation.
    • 24. Phylogeny and Modern Taxonomy: Think. Pair. Share What are the drawbacks of traditional taxonomy? - different genetic structures may lead to similar physical structures. - evolutionary relatedness is only a guess using physical features.
    • 25. Phylogeny and Modern Taxonomy: Think. Pair. Share How are all of these obstacles be overcome? Hint: Phylogenetics.
    • 26. How can all of these obstacles be overcome? By collecting and comparing DNA samples of specimens, their identity and evolutionary relatedness can be determined efficiently and accurately. This is how phylogenetic trees are made. Phylogeny and Modern Taxonomy
    • 27. Phylogeny and Modern Taxonomy: Think. Pair. Share Why is modern taxonomy important? - Organism research can be applied to other similar organisms. - Transmission and vulnerability to disease can be traced more easily. - Crop yield and disease resistance can be improved in plants by crossing certain species.