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05 ecological niches and cycles
 

05 ecological niches and cycles

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  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z3eDLQym9qo (Ecological niches 2:09)http://www.disclose.tv/action/viewvideo/107850/Microcosmos/ (Microcosmos video 1:15:11)
  • Termite mound, termites, termite queen/king
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05 ecological niches and cycles 05 ecological niches and cycles Presentation Transcript

  • Ecological Niches and Cycles
  • Ecological NichesHabitat: The naturalhome of an organism. Itprovides refuge andfood.
  • Ecological NichesAn ecological niche isthe role (functions) ofa species in anecosystem and itshabitat.
  • Ecological NichesThe ecological niche of a species includes:1) What it feeds on2) What feeds on it
  • Ecological Niches3) How the species behaves in its environment4) All the factors that the species needs to survive,remain healthy and reproduce
  • Ex. What is the ecological niche of black bears?– Live in forests.– Feed on nuts, berries,insects, and small animals.– Fed on by blood-feedinginsects and parasites.– Help carry seeds of berriesfor long distances (in theirdigestive systems) andexpel them allowing theseeds to grow.Ecological Niches
  • The Nitrogen Cycle
  • • N2 (nitrogen gas) is the most abundant gas in theatmosphere (78%)• Nitrogen is needed to make protein and DNA.• However, it is not in a usable form for plants to take up.• Animals obtain the nitrates (NO3−) from eating plants.The Nitrogen Cycle
  • Nitrogen Fixation:• Nitrogen fixation is the process of turning nitrogengas into a useable form, nitrate, NO3-• Two methods:a) lightning strikesb) by certain types of bacteria which live in the soil.The Nitrogen Cycle
  • Nitrogen in Agriculture• Farmers often plant crops like alfalfa and clover toincrease the nitrate, NO3-, levels in the soil.• Soil is often aerated (holes are dug) to allow oxygen tofacilitate the process of nitrogen fixation.• Fertilizers also increased the nitrate level.The Nitrogen Cycle
  • Denitrification• There are some bacteria (called denitrifying bacteria)which will break down the nitrate, NO3- back to nitrogengas in a process called denitrification.The Nitrogen Cycle
  • The Carbon Cycle
  • Organic- Contain atoms of C, H andsometimes O and N.- Examples: protein, sugarand fats.Inorganic- Does not contain acombination of C and H.- Examples: CO2 and H2OThe Carbon CycleBefore we begin…
  • Are the following molecules organic or inorganic?The Carbon Cycle
  • Matter must be recycled to maintain life1) Digestion - through digestion complex organicmolecules are broken down into simpler molecules.2) Decay – After death decomposers break down theorganic matter into small inorganic molecules (plantsuse these inorganic molecules to make food forthemselves)The Carbon Cycle
  • First Experiment• Candle in Jar A burnedfor 3 minutes• Candle in jar with mintplant burned for 5minutesWhy do you think?Joseph Priestley (1733–1804) began a series ofexperiments that would reveal the essential role of air in thegrowth of green plants.The Carbon Cycle
  • Second Experiment• Placed mouse in jarwithout plant and itdied• Placed mouse in jarwith mint plant andlived for a longer periodof time. (eventuallydied)The Carbon Cycle
  • Conclusion• Plants and animals helpeach other.• Now scientists knowthat plants use carbondioxide and water tomake sugar and oxygenis released as sugars aremade. We call thisprocessPHOTOSYNTHESISPhotosynthesis:6H2O + 6CO2 ----------> C6H12O6+ 6O2The Carbon Cycle
  • Cellular Respiration• The mouse used oxygenfrom the plant to breakdown sugars. Whenyour body breaks downsugar carbon dioxideand water are released.• This process is calledcellular respirationC6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2OThe Carbon Cycle
  • Definitions• Cellular respiration– Process of convertingfood energy intochemical energy that canbe used by all cells in thebody– Occurs in themitochondriaC6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6 H2OThe Carbon Cycle
  • Definition• Photosynthesis– Process of convertinglight energy into storedfood energy– Occurs in chloroplasts ofautotrophs6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2The Carbon Cycle
  • Summary• There is a balancebetween oxygen andcarbon dioxide within thebiosphere• Plants provide oxygenand sugars• Animals provide CO2 andwater.• Processes ofphotosynthesis andcellular respiration arecomplementary notopposite. (Steps involvedare different)The Carbon Cycle
  • The Carbon Cycle• All living things contain carbon• 3 sources of carbon in food:– Carbohydrates (spinach, oranges,sugar, bread)– Lipids (oil, butter)– Proteins (meat, eggs)• Carbon is recycled throughcellular respiration andphotosynthesis and thisrelationship is called thecarbon cycle
  • Fast Track Carbon Cycle: (minutes to years)Atmospheric CO2↓Photosynthesis in Autotrophs↓Digestion in Organisms↓Cellular respiration inorganisms↓Decomposition of organismsThe Carbon Cycle
  • • Death of living organismsresults in decomposition oforganic molecules(decomposers)• Decomposition is very slowin oxygen-poor areas suchas bogs.• As a result carbon atoms indecaying matter remaintrapped between rocks andare compacted over timeresulting in the formation ofcoal (fossil fuel)The Carbon CycleSlow Track Carbon Cycle on Land: (over millions of years)
  • Bogs• Bogs receive all or most oftheir water from the rain thatcomes down. As a result, bogsare low in the nutrientsneeded for plant growth. Bogsare also acidic due to thepresents of peat mosses.The Carbon Cycle
  • • Carbon atoms are returned to the atmosphere bynatural processes such as:–Uplifting–Weathering–ErosionThe Carbon Cycle
  • Weathering• weathering is simply the chemical or physicalbreakdown of rock materialThe Carbon Cycle
  • Erosion• is the removal ortransportation of material byagents as running water, ice,wind, etc.• Eg. Bryce Canyon in AlaskaThe Carbon Cycle
  • Uplifting• Material that has been“pushed” up fromunderneath the ground.– Earthquakes– Volcanoes– Events are due to themovement of the Earth’splates (called platetectonics)The Carbon Cycle
  • • Oil (fossil fuel)• Trapped in similarfashion as coal,however oil is trappedunder the ocean floor– Decaying matter istrapped under sediment(rocks) in a low oxygenenvironmentThe Carbon CycleSlow Track Carbon Cycle in water: (over millions of years)
  • Dissolved Carbon• In the ocean there is atremendous amount ofdissolved CO2 (inorganiccarbon)• Some of the CO2 reacts withthe sea water to formcarbonate ions andbicarbonate ions• Carbonates combine withcalcium to form calciumcarbonate, in turn hardeningthe skeletons (shells)CO3²ˉ (carbonate ion)HCO3¯ (bicarbonate ion)The Carbon CycleSlow Track Carbon Cycle on Land: (over millions of years)
  • The Slow Track Carbon Cycle in Water• Limestone– When aquatic organisms dietheir skeletons form sediments(rocks)– Carbon can be trapped in rocksfor millions of years until it isbrought back to the surface• Volcanic activity• Acid rain falling on exposedlimestone will cause arelease of carbon dioxideThe Carbon Cycle
  • Human ImpactGreenhouse Effect• gases in the atmosphere (water vapor, carbon dioxide, etc.)trap energy from the sun.The Carbon Cycle