Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
04 urinary tractkidney
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

04 urinary tractkidney


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Role of Kidney renal system – referring to the kidney 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. blood filtration waste excretion acid / base balance blood pressure regulation hormone secretion
  • 2. Kidney Blood Flow Blood enters the kidney through the renal artery. renal arteries stem from the aorta Filtered blood exits the kidney through the renal vein. renal veins flow into the inferior vena cava
  • 3. Blood and the Nephron Renal artery blood is filtered through nephrons. About a million nephrons make up the kidney. Nephrons collect liquid to be excreted. Fluids are exchanged between the nephron before blood is returned to renal vein.
  • 4. Blood Flow The renal artery is split into afferent arterioles. blood brought to glomerulus (a capillary bed) blood leaves through the efferent arterioles  no veins involved Efferent arterioles are the beginning of a network of peritubular capillaries, that wrap around the nephron.
  • 5. Nephron Nephrons begin surrounding the glomerulus with the Bowman’s capsule structure. fluids to become urine flow to narrow proximal tubule urine flows through loop of Henle urine flows through distal tubule Urine from multiple nephrons flow into the collecting duct.
  • 6. Kidney Structure renal cortex – outside of kidney; location of Bowman’s capsule renal medulla – middle of kidney; location of loop of Henle renal pelvis – location of the ends of collecting ducts
  • 7. Urine Flow Urine leaves the renal pelvis through the ureters and travels to the bladder. Fluid leaves the body through the urethra. When ~200 mL of urine has collected in the bladder, the walls stretch and signals are sent to the brain. At ~600 mL, urine will involuntarily be released.
  • 8. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) UTI’s are caused by bacterial growth in the urethra or bladder. Symptoms: frequent urination sensation of needing to urinate (even if there is little to pass) blood in urine discharge in urine (cloudiness)
  • 9. efferent arteriole proximal tubule glomerulus Bowman’s capsule distal tubule collucting duct afferent arteriole Loop of Henle
  • 10. aorta inferior vena cava renal cortex renal medulla renal artery renal vein kidney ureter bladder urethra renal pelvis nephrons ureter
  • 11. Three Functions of Urine Formation 1. filtration – movement of fluids from the glomerular blood to the Bowman’s capsule 2. reabsorption – transfer of fluids from nephron into peritubular capillaries 3. secretion – transfer of fluids from peritubular capillaries into nephron
  • 12. Filtration Nutrients move from glomerulus into Bowman’s capsule due to high blood pressure (65 mm Hg; normal ~ 25 mm Hg)
  • 13. Nutrient Flow Solute Glomerulus  Bowman’s Capsule? water yes NaCl yes H+ ions yes amino acids yes glucose yes plasma proteins no red blood cells (erythrocytes) no platelets no
  • 14. Reabsorption Reabsorption saves us from having to continuously replenish our body with fluid. 20% of fluid flowing into kidney is filtered into nephrons less than 1% of nephron fluid is used to make urine
  • 15. Reabsorption vs. Secretion Reabsorption Secretion protein transporters protein transporters move nutrients into interstitial fluid and blood move wastes from blood to interstitial fluid to nephron kidney tissue will only reabsorb a certain level of nutrients – threshold level
  • 16. 1. Bowman’s Capsule water and dissolved solutes leave glomerulus; enter Bowman’s capsule water Na+ H+ Clglucose amino acids vitamins minerals urea uric acid
  • 17. 2. Proximal Tubule selective reabsorption of nutrients (need transporters) pH determined by HCO3reabsorption and H+ secretion HCO3-, K+ Na+, ClH2O amino acids glucose vitamins H+ NH3
  • 18. 3. Loop of Henle – Descending Limb only permeable to H2O (osmosis) impermeable to salt fluids in tube are being concentrated H2O
  • 19. 4. Loop of Henle – Ascending Limb only permeable to salt (need ionic transporters) impermeable to water NaCl
  • 20. 5. Distal Tubule HCO3Na+, ClH2O selective reabsorption of nutrients (need transporters) pH determined by HCO3reabsorption and H+ secretion H+ NH3 K+
  • 21. 6. Collecting Duct urine formation by concentration nephron fluid any urea and urine that is reabsorbed is less than that was filtered into nephron NaCl urea water
  • 22. Kidney Stones crystallization of some urine solutes a 2 – 3 mm stone can obstruct flow to the ureter Treatment: increased water consumption surgery