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04 urinary tractkidney
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04 urinary tractkidney

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  • 1. Role of Kidney renal system – referring to the kidney 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. blood filtration waste excretion acid / base balance blood pressure regulation hormone secretion
  • 2. Kidney Blood Flow Blood enters the kidney through the renal artery. renal arteries stem from the aorta Filtered blood exits the kidney through the renal vein. renal veins flow into the inferior vena cava
  • 3. Blood and the Nephron Renal artery blood is filtered through nephrons. About a million nephrons make up the kidney. Nephrons collect liquid to be excreted. Fluids are exchanged between the nephron before blood is returned to renal vein.
  • 4. Blood Flow The renal artery is split into afferent arterioles. blood brought to glomerulus (a capillary bed) blood leaves through the efferent arterioles  no veins involved Efferent arterioles are the beginning of a network of peritubular capillaries, that wrap around the nephron.
  • 5. Nephron Nephrons begin surrounding the glomerulus with the Bowman’s capsule structure. fluids to become urine flow to narrow proximal tubule urine flows through loop of Henle urine flows through distal tubule Urine from multiple nephrons flow into the collecting duct.
  • 6. Kidney Structure renal cortex – outside of kidney; location of Bowman’s capsule renal medulla – middle of kidney; location of loop of Henle renal pelvis – location of the ends of collecting ducts
  • 7. Urine Flow Urine leaves the renal pelvis through the ureters and travels to the bladder. Fluid leaves the body through the urethra. When ~200 mL of urine has collected in the bladder, the walls stretch and signals are sent to the brain. At ~600 mL, urine will involuntarily be released.
  • 8. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) UTI’s are caused by bacterial growth in the urethra or bladder. Symptoms: frequent urination sensation of needing to urinate (even if there is little to pass) blood in urine discharge in urine (cloudiness)
  • 9. efferent arteriole proximal tubule glomerulus Bowman’s capsule distal tubule collucting duct afferent arteriole Loop of Henle
  • 10. aorta inferior vena cava renal cortex renal medulla renal artery renal vein kidney ureter bladder urethra renal pelvis nephrons ureter
  • 11. Three Functions of Urine Formation 1. filtration – movement of fluids from the glomerular blood to the Bowman’s capsule 2. reabsorption – transfer of fluids from nephron into peritubular capillaries 3. secretion – transfer of fluids from peritubular capillaries into nephron
  • 12. Filtration Nutrients move from glomerulus into Bowman’s capsule due to high blood pressure (65 mm Hg; normal ~ 25 mm Hg)
  • 13. Nutrient Flow Solute Glomerulus  Bowman’s Capsule? water yes NaCl yes H+ ions yes amino acids yes glucose yes plasma proteins no red blood cells (erythrocytes) no platelets no
  • 14. Reabsorption Reabsorption saves us from having to continuously replenish our body with fluid. 20% of fluid flowing into kidney is filtered into nephrons less than 1% of nephron fluid is used to make urine
  • 15. Reabsorption vs. Secretion Reabsorption Secretion protein transporters protein transporters move nutrients into interstitial fluid and blood move wastes from blood to interstitial fluid to nephron kidney tissue will only reabsorb a certain level of nutrients – threshold level
  • 16. 1. Bowman’s Capsule water and dissolved solutes leave glomerulus; enter Bowman’s capsule water Na+ H+ Clglucose amino acids vitamins minerals urea uric acid
  • 17. 2. Proximal Tubule selective reabsorption of nutrients (need transporters) pH determined by HCO3reabsorption and H+ secretion HCO3-, K+ Na+, ClH2O amino acids glucose vitamins H+ NH3
  • 18. 3. Loop of Henle – Descending Limb only permeable to H2O (osmosis) impermeable to salt fluids in tube are being concentrated H2O
  • 19. 4. Loop of Henle – Ascending Limb only permeable to salt (need ionic transporters) impermeable to water NaCl
  • 20. 5. Distal Tubule HCO3Na+, ClH2O selective reabsorption of nutrients (need transporters) pH determined by HCO3reabsorption and H+ secretion H+ NH3 K+
  • 21. 6. Collecting Duct urine formation by concentration nephron fluid any urea and urine that is reabsorbed is less than that was filtered into nephron NaCl urea water
  • 22. Kidney Stones crystallization of some urine solutes a 2 – 3 mm stone can obstruct flow to the ureter Treatment: increased water consumption surgery