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04 cancer
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04 cancer


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    • 1. Cancer
    • 2. Cancer Cancer is a deadly disease where your own cells attack your body, destroying the body from the inside, leading to severe sickness and death. Cancer can kill a person in months or years.
    • 3. Cancer A tumour is a mass of cells that continue to divide with no function in the body. The very first cell to start a tumour is created by a DNA mutation caused by a carcinogen. The mutated cell begins dividing uncontrollably.
    • 4. Cancer Normally the immune system can kill cancer cells by inducing a) apoptosis – programmed cell death b) necrosis – cell injury that results in premature death of cell, often linked to inflammation of surrounding tissues
    • 5. Cancer Apoptosis can occur for “normal” cells when it is time for them to die. It can also occur as “cell suicide” if they are infected with a virus or have damaged DNA.
    • 6. Cancer Metastasis – spreading around the body, invading other organs and impairing their function. Malignant – an aggressive cancer that metastasizes, resulting in sickness and death. Benign – a tumor that is not malignant.
    • 7. Cancer A person with skin cancer may later get the cancer in their lungs because the skin cancer may have been malignant. That means the cancer has metastasized from the skin to the lungs.
    • 8. Cancer Liver cancer:
    • 9. Types of Cancer Carcinoma: Cancers derived from epithelial cells; includes the most common cancers (especially of old age), and nearly all developing in the breast, prostate, lung, pancreas, and colon. Sarcoma: Cancers arising from connective tissue (i.e. bone, cartilage, fat, nerve), each of which develop from cells originating outside the bone marrow. Lymphoma and leukemia: Cancers arising from blood-forming cells that leave the marrow and tend to mature in the lymph nodes and blood. Leukemia is the most common type of cancer in children accounting for about 30%. Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle (seminoma) or the ovary (dysgerminoma). Blastoma: Cancers derived from immature "precursor" cells or embryonic tissue.
    • 10. Causes of Cancer Cancer starts with a mutation in the DNA. Mutation – A change to the DNA sequence. Not all mutations are harmful. Some mutations do not affect an organism, while some cause health problems like cancer.
    • 11. Causes of Cancer Types of mutations:
    • 12. Causes of Cancer A carcinogen is a factor in the environment that can cause cancer. Three known carcinogens are tobacco smoke, x-rays, and environmental pollution. Other carcinogens are UV radiation (sunlight or tanning beds), viruses, organic solvents, and certain chemicals in plastics.
    • 13. Causes of Cancer
    • 14. Causes of Cancer
    • 15. Cancer Prevention Cancer is linked to diet because eating more “super foods” such as tomatoes, carrots, red grapes, and broccoli can help prevent cancer.
    • 16. Cancer Prevention Eating less red meat, processed meat, saturated fat, and refined sugar may also reduce the risk of cancer.
    • 17. Cancer Prevention A healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of cancer. This includes being active.
    • 18. Detecting Cancer Moles are a very common cause of skin cancer, usually caused UV radiation (tanning beds and sun exposure)
    • 19. Detecting Cancer
    • 20. Detecting Cancer Cancer Type Estimated New Cases Estimated Deaths Bladder 72,570 15,210 Breast (Female : Male) 232,340 : 2,240 39,620 : 410 Colon and Rectal (Combined) 142,820 50,830 Endometrial 49,560 8,190 Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer 59,938 12,586 Leukemia (All Types) 48,610 23,720 Lung (Including Bronchus) 228,190 159,480 Melanoma 76,690 9,480 Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 69,740 19,020 Pancreatic 45,220 38,460 Prostate 238,590 29,720 Thyroid 60,220 1,850
    • 21. Detecting Cancer Mammograms Positive Negative
    • 22. Detecting Cancer The Prostate
    • 23. Detecting Cancer When a doctor thinks that you might have cancer, they may perform a biopsy. This means that they cut a piece of the tumor out of you and analyze it.
    • 24. Treating Cancer There are 3 common cancer treatments: 1) Surgery 2) Chemotherapy 3) Radiation Therapy
    • 25. Treating Cancer There are 3 common cancer treatments: 1) Surgery – the tumor is cut out
    • 26. Treating Cancer There are 3 common cancer treatments: 2) Chemotherapy – chemicals are injected in the person to poison and kill the tumor cells.
    • 27. Treating Cancer There are 3 common cancer treatments: 3) Radiation Therapy – radioactive energy is used to damage the DNA of cancer cells to the point of cell death.