02a endocrine system

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02a endocrine system

  1. 1. Endocrine System endocrine system – delivery of chemicals within the body; created by one organ to be delivered to another (usually far away) hormones – affecting chemicals delivered around the body; to increase / decrease processes  Greek origins: to excite / set in motion
  2. 2. Glands endocrine glands – organs producing molecules delivered by blood stream exocrine glands – organs producing molecules delivered by ducts (cellular tubes)  salivary glands  sweat glands
  3. 3. Hormone Discovery - 1889 Joseph van Mering & Oscar Minkowski  removed pancreas from dogs  rapid weight loss  fatigued  ants gathered around urine  pancreas related to regulating body sugars
  4. 4. Hormone Roles  hormones are specific to target cells How do they know where to go?  target cells have protein receptors for hormones Two hormone types: 1. steroid hormones 2. protein hormones
  5. 5. 1. Steroid Hormones   1. 2. 3. made from cholesterol not soluble in water diffuse from cell of origin (through membranes) diffuse into target cell often moves into nucleus to affect transcription
  6. 6. Steroid Hormone Action H R R H
  7. 7. Steroid Hormone Action H R R H binding area
  8. 8. 2. Protein Hormones   short peptide sequences water soluble 1. transported from cell of origin (secretory vesicles) 2. attach to surface receptors of target cells 3. activates enzymes to make other internal signals
  9. 9. Protein Hormone Action H ATP R cyclic AMP + PPi other enzymes
  10. 10. Pituitary Gland overlooks operation of all other glands Two lobes: 1. anterior lobe – produces own hormones; released upon hypothalamus signal 2. posterior lobe – stores and releases hormones produced in hypothalamus; released upon signal
  11. 11. Pituitary Gland
  12. 12. Pituitary Gland: Closer Look

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