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02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
02 classifying species
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02 classifying species

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  • 1. Think. Pair. Share. • Where (specifically) can we find life on Earth? • Is there anywhere on Earth that life does not exist?
  • 2. Mountain Tops: Is There Life?
  • 3. Hot Springs: Is There Life?
  • 4. Antarctica: Is There Life?
  • 5. Geysers : Is There Life?
  • 6. Digestive Tracts of Other Animals: Is There Life?
  • 7. Clouds: Is There Life?
  • 8. Bottom of the Ocean: Is There Life?
  • 9. Deserts: Is There Life?
  • 10. Volcanoes: Is There Life?
  • 11. Lava: Is There Life?
  • 12. Centre of the Earth: Is There Life?
  • 13. There are over 1.7 million classified species known to scientists. It is estimated that there are about 15 million in total, and they are almost everywhere. Biodiversity and Classifying Species
  • 14. Biodiversity and Classifying Species The most common definition of species: 1) Biological - A group of organisms that are able to naturally (no help from humans) breed and produce fertile offspring. dog (labrador) dog (poodle) dog (labradoodle) The labradoodle is not sterile (can mate) and so the Labrador and poodle are of the same species.
  • 15. Biodiversity and Classifying Species horse zebra zebroid (zorse) Zorses are sterile. This means that even though horses and zebras are similar and can produce babies, they are not of the same species. When 2 different species mate and successfully produce a new organism it is called a hybrid.
  • 16. - Sometimes, the species of animals are classified based on other criteria: 2) Morpholoical – the structural and physical features (morphology) of the species (ex. colour, size, shape) Biodiversity and Classifying Species
  • 17. Biodiversity and Classifying Species Sometimes, the species of animals are classified based on other criteria: 3) Phylogenetic – how the species has grown and changed over the course of history (how it evolved). Includes DNA analysis.
  • 18. Think. Pair. Share. Why are there 3 different ways to classify the species of organisms? (What are the advantages or disadvantages of each system?)
  • 19. Species Concept Advantages Disadvantages Biological - Most common system. - Leaves little doubt regarding offspring fertility. - Species of asexually reproducing species and fossils can not be determined. - Some hybrids have only reduced fertility (ex. ligers and tigons). - Not all mating combinations can be "naturally" tested. Morphological - Easy to do. - Requires observations only. - All members of a species look somewhat different. - Physical features of some species members can vary greatly. - Major differences may only exist in interior anatomy. Phylogenetic - Can be used for extinct species. - DNA analysis for comparing organisms is very detailed. - Evolutionary histories are not always known.
  • 20. Hybridization and asexual reproduction make the biological species definition tenuous (iffy): Orange + Pomello = Grapefruit Example of Hybridization: Example of Asexual Reproduction (one parent):
  • 21. Biodiversity and Classifying Species Biodiversity: The variety of life in the world. Species in ecosystems must interact. Their success depends on each other, as each species plays a specific role.
  • 22. Think. Pair. Share. What are some examples of Interspecies Interactions (organisms relying on another species)? 1) Food supply 2) Protection 3) Transportation 4) Reproduction 5) Hygiene 6) Digestion
  • 23. Think. Pair. Share. What are some examples of Interspecies Interactions (organisms relying on another species)? 1) Food supply Ex. This amoeba is engulfing a protist.
  • 24. Think. Pair. Share. What are some examples of Interspecies Interactions (organisms relying on another species)? 1) Food supply Ex. Many species of female mosquitoes must consume blood to prepare for birth.
  • 25. Think. Pair. Share. What are some examples of Interspecies Interactions (organisms relying on another species)? 2) Protection Ex. Sea anemones are venomous and toxic to most sea life. Clownfish are immune to these toxins and use the anemone for protection.
  • 26. Think. Pair. Share. What are some examples of Interspecies Interactions (organisms relying on another species)? 2) Protection Ex. Pearlfish live inside sea cucumbers for protection from predators.
  • 27. Think. Pair. Share. What are some examples of Interspecies Interactions (organisms relying on another species)? 3) Transportation Ex. These barnacles are living on whale. They are otherwise immobile.
  • 28. Think. Pair. Share. What are some examples of Interspecies Interactions (organisms relying on another species)? 3) Transportation Ex. Burdocks have small hooked spines on their heads that stick to the fur of animals that pass by. This is used for seed dispersal.
  • 29. Think. Pair. Share. What are some examples of Interspecies Interactions (organisms relying on another species)? 4) Reproduction Ex. Many plants require other organisms to help spread their pollen.
  • 30. Think. Pair. Share. What are some examples of Interspecies Interactions (organisms relying on another species)? 5) Hygiene Ex. Pilot fish swim around sharks and in their mouths to eat scraps and leftover prey from their teeth.
  • 31. Think. Pair. Share. What are some examples of Interspecies Interactions (organisms relying on another species)? 5) Hygiene Ex. The Egyptian plover may rarely get its diet by eating food scraps in the teeth of crocodiles.
  • 32. Think. Pair. Share. What are some examples of Interspecies Interactions (organisms relying on another species)? 6) Digestion Ex. The rumen (extra stomach) of an animal that eats grass is filled with microorganisms that help it break-down the grass.
  • 33. Think. Pair. Share. What are some examples of Interspecies Interactions (organisms relying on another species)? 6) Digestion Ex. Termites have bacteria in them that help digest the wood they eat.
  • 34. Biodiversity and Classifying Species Biodiversity has 3 parts: 1) Genetic diversity – all members of the same species are slightly different.
  • 35. Biodiversity and Classifying Species Biodiversity has 3 parts: 2) Species diversity – the number of different species present.
  • 36. Why is Biodiversity Important? Biodiversity has 3 parts: 3) Structural diversity – the abiotic and physical traits of the ecosystem. Also called ecosystem diversity. Windy Shady Wet Sunny
  • 37. Think. Pair. Share. Complete the Sentence Biodiversity is important because natural ecosystems... - Supply humans with natural resources like medicine, wood, and food. - Are used by humans for agriculture (ex. pollination and soil fertility are maintained naturally). - Cycle carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and water. - Help control climate, erosion, and flooding.

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