01 plants part 2 (slideshare)


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  • 01 plants part 2 (slideshare)

    1. 1. <ul><li>Non-vascular plants: </li></ul><ul><li>Have no vascular tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent on processes of diffusion and osmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Grow low to the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Have no roots, leaves or stems </li></ul><ul><li>May have stem- like , leaf- like or root- like parts </li></ul><ul><li>(i.e. rhizoids = root-like structure) </li></ul>Classifying plants PLANTS
    2. 2. <ul><li>Non-vascular plants: </li></ul><ul><li>Three divisions of non-vascular plants: </li></ul><ul><li>Mosses (bryophytes) </li></ul><ul><li>2) Hornworts (anthocerophytes) </li></ul><ul><li>3) Liverworts (hepatophytes) </li></ul>Mosses Hornworts Liverworts Classifying plants PLANTS
    3. 3. <ul><li>Non-vascular plants: </li></ul><ul><li>Mosses (bryophytes) </li></ul><ul><li>No vascular tissue </li></ul><ul><li>No roots – absorb water directly through surface </li></ul><ul><li>Twice as many species of mosses as there are mammals </li></ul><ul><li>- Very diverse - Thrive in bogs, </li></ul><ul><li>tundra, bare rock, shade, etc. </li></ul>Classifying plants PLANTS
    4. 4. <ul><li>Non-vascular plants: </li></ul><ul><li>2) Hornworts (anthocerophytes) </li></ul><ul><li>Gametophytes: broad, flat, usually less than 2 cm in diameter, blue-green colour </li></ul><ul><li>-Sporophytes: look pointy and green </li></ul>Classifying plants PLANTS
    5. 5. <ul><li>Non-vascular plants: </li></ul><ul><li>3) Liverworts (hepatophytes) </li></ul><ul><li>Grow flat and close to the ground </li></ul><ul><li>- Rarely no more than 30 cells thick </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leafy : resembles mosses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ii) Thallose : made up of flattened lobed bodies called thalli </li></ul></ul>Classifying plants PLANTS
    6. 6. <ul><li>Non-vascular plants: </li></ul><ul><li>Life cycle dominated by gametophyte (haploid) phase </li></ul><ul><li>Male gametophytes produce sperm , female gametophytes produce eggs . </li></ul><ul><li>For fertilization to occur there must be enough moisture on the plant surface for the sperm to swim to the egg </li></ul><ul><li>- After fertilization, the zygote remains on female plant and develops into sporophyte (diploid) . </li></ul>Classifying plants PLANTS
    7. 7. The Leaf: The main role of the leaf is to convert solar energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis . Parts of the Leaf: Epidermis Stoma Spongy Layer Vascular Tissue Palisade cells Structures PLANTS
    8. 8. <ul><li>The Leaf: Epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Cuticle </li></ul><ul><li>waxy non-living exterior that allows for water proofing </li></ul><ul><li>to protect their interior tissues </li></ul><ul><li>composed of cells tightly packed together. </li></ul><ul><li>The cuticle is so effective, it can also block the passage of gases through the cells of the epidermis. </li></ul>Structures PLANTS
    9. 9. The Leaf: Epidermis Cuticle So how does CO 2 and water molecules needed for photosynthesis enter the leaf? Through the stoma Structures PLANTS
    10. 10. <ul><li>The Leaf: Epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Stoma (Greek for “mouth”) </li></ul><ul><li>pore-like openings in the plant’s epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>- function – to permit gas exchange between the leaf’s interior and external environment. </li></ul><ul><li>-The larger the opening, the faster the gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>-The size of the opening is controlled by two guard cells . </li></ul>Structures PLANTS
    11. 11. The Leaf: Epidermis Stoma and Guard Cells Structures PLANTS
    12. 12. <ul><li>The Leaf: Spongy Layer </li></ul><ul><li>Where water is stored. </li></ul><ul><li>Water vapour will be released through the stomata in a process called transpiration . </li></ul>Structures PLANTS
    13. 13. The Leaf: Vascular Tissue The VEINS – made up of xylem and phloem which are bundled together in thin strands. They allow the movement of water and nutrients Think back to the veins in a dicot and monocot flower. Which veins are parallel and which are net-like? Structures PLANTS
    14. 14. The Leaf: Palisade Cells -Palisade cells act like a solar panel . -In dicot leaves, the palisade cells stand tall and upright . -The top end of the palisade cell’s surface is exposed to light. -The bottom end is exposed to the gases in the spongy layer. -This allows photosynthesis to take place. Structures PLANTS
    15. 15. The Stem: Epidermis - Outermost layer of the stem -Contains chloroplasts , cuticle , stomata -Allows for photosynthesis to take place -Also protects the inner tissues of the stem Structures PLANTS
    16. 16. The Stem: Vascular Tissue -Contain both xylem and phloem -In dicots , the tissue is arranged in a ring -In monocot , the tissue is scattered everywhere. Structures PLANTS
    17. 17. The Stem: Pith -Found in the center of the stem -Contains air spaces (spongy tissue) -Stores water and some nutrients . Structures PLANTS
    18. 18. The Stem: Cortex -Layer of tissue surrounding the pith. - Rigid tissue -Structural support -Also stores water and some nutrients Structures PLANTS
    19. 19. The Roots: - Anchors the plant in the soil and holds the stem in place - Prevents erosion -Roots absorb water required for photosynthesis and replace water loss during transpiration. -Absorb dissolved minerals - Store starch that is made by the leaves Structures PLANTS
    20. 20. The Roots: 2 types Fibrous Roots – large number of slender roots Taproot – one large root. Ex: Beets, carrots, turnips and radishes. Which type of root is more effective in preventing erosion? Structures PLANTS
    21. 21. The Roots: 4 zones -Zone of maturation: cells differentiate into different types of cells. -Zone of elongation: allows the root to get deeper within the soil - Meristematic region: rapid mitosis of undifferentiated meristematic cells. - Root cap: protects the meristematic region. Structures PLANTS
    22. 22. The Roots: Epidermis -Contain root hairs on the surface. - Protects the interior root structures. -Absorbs water and dissolved minerals from the soil. Structures PLANTS
    23. 23. The Roots: Epidermis -Roots epidermal cells have no chloroplasts therefore they cannot make food. -The root cells must perform cellular respiration (what humans use) in order to stay alive. -The GLUCOSE comes from the starch in the cortex of the root. Structures C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy PLANTS
    24. 24. The Roots: Cortex Lies inside the root’s epidermis Contain vacuoles for food storage The purple colour observed in photographs is the starch that is stored in the vacuoles. (purple is the dye that was used) Structures PLANTS
    25. 25. <ul><li>The Roots: Endodermis </li></ul><ul><li>-Inside the cortex </li></ul><ul><li>-Carefully filter materials travelling into the center of the root. </li></ul><ul><li>Filtering stops harmful substances from entering the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>-It has a selectively permeable membrane . It only allows certain molecules to pass through. </li></ul><ul><li>-Therefore the root endodermis, determines what enters the entire vascular system for transport to the rest of the plant. </li></ul>Structures PLANTS