01 plants part 1 (slideshare)


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01 plants part 1 (slideshare)

  1. 1. PLANTS
  2. 2. Land plants evolved from algae -> sexual reproductive cycles evolved from algae reproductive strategies which were in water PLANTS
  3. 3. Life cycles of plants Alternate between diploid ( sporophyte ) and haploid ( gametophyte ) generations. Usually either sporophyte or gametophyte generation dominates a plant’s lifespan PLANTS
  4. 4. Life cycles of plants <ul><li>Haploid (gametophyte) generation: </li></ul><ul><li>Grows from a haploid spore </li></ul><ul><li>-Can produce male and female gametes that fuse at fertilization, which then develops into a sporophyte </li></ul>PLANTS
  5. 5. Life cycles of plants Diploid (sporophyte) generation: -Can produce haploid spores through meiosis -Haploid spores can develop without fertilization PLANTS
  6. 6. Life cycles of plants When we purchase fern plants, we actually buy fern plants in their sporophyte stage . Fern plants also have a gametophyte stage which won’t sell well due to its appearance. Sporophyte stage PLANTS
  7. 7. Life cycles of plants PLANTS
  8. 8. Classifying plants Plants can be classified as: Vascular or Non-vascular PLANTS
  9. 9. Classifying plants <ul><li>Vascular plants: </li></ul><ul><li>Have vascular tissue (arranged in vascular bundles ), a plant circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>This system transports water, dissolved minerals, and sugars throughout plant, providing cells with materials to carry out life functions. </li></ul>PLANTS
  10. 10. <ul><li>Vascular plants: </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular plants have three main parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots : Anchor plant to soil, reach water source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves : Create large surface area for photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stems : Raise and support leaves </li></ul></ul>Classifying plants PLANTS
  11. 11. <ul><li>Vascular plants: </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular bundles transport material through the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>-Vascular bundles in a stem are continuous . </li></ul><ul><li>-They are tube-like strands connecting the roots to the leaves . </li></ul>Classifying plants PLANTS
  12. 12. <ul><li>Vascular plants: Xylem </li></ul><ul><li>-Transports water . </li></ul><ul><li>In angiosperms (flowering plants), xylem is made up of long hollow tubes formed by non-living cell walls, called tracheids or vessel elements. </li></ul><ul><li>-This non-living matter was once living. (cells die, leaving cell walls as tubes) </li></ul><ul><li>- Gymnosperms (pine-cone plants) only contain tracheids . </li></ul>Classifying plants PLANTS
  13. 13. Vascular plants: Xylem Tracheids Classifying plants PLANTS
  14. 14. Vascular plants: Xylem Vessel elements Classifying plants PLANTS
  15. 15. Vascular plants: Xylem Tracheids vs. vessel elements Classifying plants PLANTS
  16. 16. <ul><li>Vascular plants: Phloem </li></ul><ul><li>Transports dissolved nutrients (food) </li></ul><ul><li>-Phloem tissue is made up of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>living tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Made of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-companion cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-sieve tube element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-sieve plate </li></ul></ul>Classifying plants PLANTS
  17. 17. Vascular plants: Phloem Companion cell Assists the survival of sieve tube cells Classifying plants PLANTS
  18. 18. Vascular plants: Phloem Classifying plants Sieve tube (cells without a nucleus forming a hollow tube) Sieve plate (perforated end of sieve tube cells) PLANTS
  19. 19. Vascular plants: Phloem & tree sap -In plants, roots store STARCH , a polysaccharide which is NOT soluble in water. -Starch is broken down into SUCROSE , a disaccharide which IS soluble in water. -In the spring, the SUCROSE is then transported from the roots (where it is stored during the winter) to the developing leaves through phloem. -The leaves convert the SUCROSE into glucose , a monosaccharide. Classifying plants PLANTS
  20. 20. Vascular plants: Phloem & tree sap -The glucose provides energy for the GROWTH OF LEAVES . -Once leaves have grown, they can perform PHOTOSYNTHESIS to produce their own glucose. -Excess glucose is converted into STARCH in the chloroplasts (an organelle). -The STARCH is then converted into sucrose , which is transported to the ROOTS through the phloem. Classifying plants PLANTS
  21. 21. Vascular plants: Phloem & tree sap -The carbohydrate that plants transport in the phloem is SUCROSE , a disaccharide. -Sucrose is converted into the polysaccharide STARCH in the roots -Sucrose is converted into the monosaccharide GLUCOSE in the leaves in early spring. Classifying plants PLANTS
  22. 22. Vascular plants: Phloem & tree sap Classifying plants Glucose (leaves) Sucrose (stem) Starch (roots) -winter storage Summer and Fall Summer and Fall Spring Spring PLANTS
  23. 23. <ul><li>Vascular plants: </li></ul><ul><li>Have vascular tissue, which allow them to grow tall </li></ul><ul><li>Sporophyte generation is the dominant stage </li></ul><ul><li>- Gametophytes reduced to tiny, short-lived structures </li></ul>Classifying plants PLANTS
  24. 24. <ul><li>Vascular plants: </li></ul><ul><li>The first vascular plants to evolve were seedless </li></ul><ul><li>Gametophyte generation was reduced, but still depended on moisture to reproduce so that sperm can swim to eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Few of these initial plants still exist today: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whisk Ferns </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Club mosses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horsetails </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ferns </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Classifying plants PLANTS
  25. 25. Vascular plants: Whiskfern Clubmoss Horsetail Fern Classifying plants PLANTS
  26. 26. Vascular plants: Ferns Have roots and vascular tissue and waxy thickened outer epidermis to hold in moisture Sporophyte plants have small spore-producing structures ( sori ) on the underside of pinnae Classifying plants PLANTS
  27. 27. Vascular plants: Ferns Classifying plants PLANTS
  28. 28. Vascular plants: Seeds -most vascular plants reproduce using seeds - A seed is made up of an embryo, stored food, and a tough waterproof coat . Seeds can remain dormant for long periods. Classifying plants PLANTS
  29. 29. Vascular plants: Seeds 2 types of seeded plants: -Gymnosperms -Angiosperms Classifying plants PLANTS
  30. 30. <ul><li>Vascular plants: Seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Gymnosperms </li></ul><ul><li>“ Gymnosperm” means “ naked seed ” (no fruit protecting the seed) </li></ul><ul><li>- Reproduce using cones </li></ul><ul><li>Male cones produce pollen, </li></ul><ul><li>disperse to female cones via </li></ul><ul><li>wind, falls into pollen tube, develops into embryo in </li></ul><ul><li>female cone, matures into a </li></ul><ul><li>seed </li></ul>Classifying plants PLANTS
  31. 31. <ul><li>Vascular plants: Seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Gymnosperms </li></ul><ul><li>Are usually coniferous trees and their relatives </li></ul><ul><li>Well adapted to cool, dry habitats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick covering of bark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needle-like leaves with waxy cuticle to prevent water loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Keeping leaves through winter means photosynthesis can start in early spring </li></ul></ul>Classifying plants PLANTS
  32. 32. Vascular plants: Seeds Angiosperms - Flowering plants -Protect their seeds in a fruit -Make up more than ¾ of all plant species -May be trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, vines or water plants Classifying plants PLANTS
  33. 33. Vascular plants: Seeds Angiosperms -Divided into two groups: monocots and dicots The names come from parts of the embryo in the seed Radicle = embryonic root Hypocotyl = embryonic stem Cotyledon = seed leaf (may have one or two) Classifying plants PLANTS
  34. 34. Vascular plants: Seeds Angiosperms: Monocots Monocots – contain one cotyledon (ex. corn) -> Two types: “ Woody ” stems (tough and rigid) About 10% of all monocots i.e. Bamboo, palm trees Herbaceous stems (soft and fleshy) i.e. Orchids, tulips, grasses, wheat Classifying plants PLANTS
  35. 35. Vascular plants: Seeds Angiosperms: Dicots Dicots – contain two cotyledons (ex. Beans) Ex. Most of Canada’s native trees, many wildflowers, tomatoes, lettuce, yams, beans, etc. Classifying plants PLANTS
  36. 36. Monocots vs. dicots PLANTS
  37. 37. Monocots vs. dicots PLANTS
  38. 38. Monocots vs. dicots Monocot leaves Dicot leaves Parallel-veined leaves Net-veined leaves PLANTS
  39. 39. Monocots vs. dicots Monocot stem Dicot stem Primary vascular bundles scattered Primary vascular bundles in a ring PLANTS
  40. 40. Monocots vs. dicots Monocot flower Dicot flower Petals: multiples of 3 multiples of 4 or 5 PLANTS
  41. 41. Monocots vs. dicots PLANTS
  42. 42. <ul><li>Angiosperms : Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Flowers are used for reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Usually colourful and attractive to attract animals </li></ul><ul><li>Animals visiting flowers to collect nectar or pollen assist with pollination </li></ul><ul><li>pollination = transferring of pollen from male to female plant </li></ul><ul><li>- Flowers adapt to pollinators (i.e. shape, scent) </li></ul>Classifying plants PLANTS
  43. 43. Angiosperms : Reproduction Stamen – “male” reproductive organ (produce pollen ) Carpel – “female” reproductive organ (produce ovum ) Classifying plants PLANTS
  44. 44. Angiosperms : Reproduction Seeds and Fruits -Flowering plants are sporophytes (2n) -The pollen and ovum that they produce are gametophytes (1n) -The seed is the result of fertilization. -After fertilization, the ovary walls in the flower swell, become fleshy, and form either the fruit or seed pod Classifying plants PLANTS
  45. 45. Gymnosperm vs. angiosperm Classifying plants PLANTS