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01 kingdom animalia
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01 kingdom animalia


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  • They are multicellular and use oxygen – aerobic respiration
  • Germ layers: layers of cells that form during embryonic developmentEcto: outerEndo: innerMeso: middleDerm: layer
  • Discuss the key features of the diagram.
  • Coral reefs – biologically diverse...habitat for a lot of marine organisms236 species are at risk...climate change, habitat destruction
  • Arthropods, Nematodes,Annelida, Mollusca, Porifera, Flatworms – should have a sense of them
  • Pictures showing disease, destruction of crops and scallops
  • Now, birds are considered as evolved from reptilesAncestor features: gill slits, dorsal nerve cord, notochord(flexible, acted as anchor for attaching to muscles) – helped in movementAmniotic egg: outer shell prevent water lossMammals such as platypus and echidna still lay shelled eggs
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Animals
    • 2. Animals vs. Fungi and Plants - Eukaryotes - Motile - Heterotrophic - Cells have no cell walls
    • 3. Importance of Animals • As we learn more about animals we also learn more about ourselves • Source of food & consumer products • Pollination of food crops • Maintain balance of ecosystems
    • 4. Phylogeny • Common ancestor of all animals thought to be colonial, flagellated protist living 700 mya
    • 5. Phylogeny • All modern-day animals have nerves except for phylum Porifera
    • 6. Phylogenetic Tree of Kingdom Animalia
    • 7. Classification • The animal kingdom is diverse, and a number of broad characteristics are used for classification of animals
    • 8. 1. Body Symmetry • Radial symmetry: body arranged around a central axis • Bilateral symmetry: left and right sides are mirror images of each other – Protostomes: during development mouth forms before the anus – Deuterostome: during development anus forms before the mouth
    • 9. 2. Number of Germ Layers • Have between 1-3 germ layers which are ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm
    • 10. 3. Presence or Absence of Coelom • Coelom: body cavity containing internal organs
    • 11. Animal Kingdom • Divided into major categories - Invertebrates - no backbone - 95 % of kingdom (16 phyla) - Vertebrates - have a backbone (for at least part of their lives) - 5 % of kingdom (1 phylum: Chordata)
    • 12. The Simplest Invertebrates • Found in phyla Porifera and Cnidaria
    • 13. Porifera • Include 8000 species of sponges • Have simple body with flagellated cells (choanocytes) responsible for capturing food • No nerves • Sessile as adults • Most are hermaphrodites • Most are marine, some live in freshwater • Ecological roles : food and shelter for other organisms
    • 14. Cnidaria • Includes 9000 species of hydras, anemones, jellyfish and coral animals • No mesoderm • Radial symmetry • Simplest animals to have nerve, muscle, digestive and reproductive tissues • Have tentacles
    • 15. The Protostome Invertebrates • Most animal species are in this group which contain 6 phyla (See Table 1 on p. 100) • Members show diverse range of body plans and life cycles
    • 16. Human Interactions with Protostomes • Have positive and negative effects – Competition for food – Destruction of commercially valuable crops – Cause of human diseases – Vectors for human diseases – Food source – Pollination of food crops by insects
    • 17. The Deuterostomes • Include two main groups: echinoderms and chordates
    • 18. Echinoderms - Invertebrates • Includes 6500 species • Display same embryonic development as vertebrates • Have digestive and circulatory system, but no respiratory or excretory system • Radial symmetry, no head region
    • 19. Vertebrates – Phylum Chordata • Includes fish, amphibians, mammals, reptiles and birds • Most complex living organisms evolved from bilateral symmetrical organisms with segmented bodies • Evolution of features: vertebra, paired appendages, endoskeleton, large coelom, complex heart and circulatory system, brain and sensory system • Ability to live on land is due to evolution of amniotic egg _science_revolution.htm
    • 20. Deuterostomes
    • 21. Success of Vertebrates • Dorsal nerve cord surrounded by spinal cord and cranium • Advanced organ systems and complex behaviours • Fish have enlarged brain and vertebrate skeleton to help them be strong swimmers • Land-dwelling vertebrates: limbs, outer skin, lungs and circulatory systems, internal fertilization and eggs with outer shells
    • 22. Homework!  • Page 107 #1, 2, 4, 5, 11